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Chapter 1 Notes for Test 1

by: Gina Goodson

Chapter 1 Notes for Test 1 Psych 3510

Gina Goodson
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These notes are for test 1. Highlighted terms in "Chapter 1 Textbook" were mentioned in lecture.
Introduction to Research Methods in Psychology
Dr. Megan Wilson
Class Notes
Psychology, research, intro to statistics, psych3510, GSU, statenotsouthern




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This 9 page Class Notes was uploaded by Gina Goodson on Saturday August 27, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Psych 3510 at Georgia State University taught by Dr. Megan Wilson in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 75 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Research Methods in Psychology in Psychology (PSYC) at Georgia State University.


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Date Created: 08/27/16
Psych 3510: Chapter 1 (Textbook) 1. Psychologists = Empiricists > Conclusions are based off research (pg. 3) 2. Research Producers vs. Consumers (pg. 4) a. Producers i. Work in a lab or grad school ii. Focus on research process 1. Observe, study data, conduct questionnaires, etc. b. Consumers i. Read about research for application 1. Teachers, therapists, counselors, etc. c. Producers and Consumers i. Curious about behavior, emotion, and cognition ii. Use research to motivate their own iii. Use learned experiences + observations to practice empiricism 3. Being a Smart Consumer (pg. 6) a. Must have a critical eye (to detect credible sources) b. Must know research behind evidence-based treatments (basically, backed up by research) c. Use research to evaluate the best methods for professions i. Example: Sales representative uses research to predict sales d. Flexible in fields other than psychology 4. Psychological Scientists (pg. 8) a. Empiricists i. Conclusions ≠ Intuitions, personal experiences, and opinions ii. Empiricism = Empirical method = Empirical research > Evidence from senses (sight, touch, hearing) or tools that aid senses (photos, timers, questionnaires) iii. Goal: To be routine, accurate/rigorous, and have their work testable b. Use the Theory-Data Cycle i. Theory > Research design > Hypothesis > Data (Refer to Quiz 1) ii. Cupboard Theory of Mother-Infant Attachment (pg. 10) 1. Mother is source of food > Baby values mother a. When baby gets hungry, mother has food. Baby eats and experiences pleasure from relieved hunger. Baby associates mother with pleasure. iii. Contact Comfort Theory “ “ 1. Mother provides comfort when touching baby. Baby associates mother with pleasure/comfort. a. Based on Harlow’s experiment, baby monkeys clung to the fuzzy cloth mother longer vs. the wire mother that supplied milk, thus supporting this theory. iv. Theory: Describes general principles about the relationship between variables (pg. 11) 1. Example: Harlow’s theory > “The overwhelming importance of bodily contact (vs. nourishment) in forming attachments” v. Hypothesis/prediction: Statement of an expected specific result from a presumably accurate theory 1. Example: Harlow predicted babies would be more attached to the cozy mother than the wired one vi. Single theories = Many hypotheses (1 hypothesis is not sufficient for testing) vii. Data: Set of observations 1. Example: The amount of time spent with each mother (fuzzy/wired) 2. Data ≠ Hypothesis > Theory must be revised c. Good Theories (pg. 12) i. Supported by data 1. The best theories have large quantities and varieties ii. Falsifiable 1. Hypotheses can fail to support the theory iii. Have parsimony 1. “All other things being equal, the simplest solution is the best” 2. Scientists will choose the simpler theory over the complicated/complex theory iv. Public v. Objective d. Theories ≠ Proof i. Data “support/do not support” or “are consistent with/inconsistent with” a theory, but never proves a theory 1. Instead, weight of evidence is used to evaluate theories (for/against) (Check Lecture) e. Applied and Basic Research (pg. 13) i. Applied research: Practical problem; Findings are applied to real-world contexts 1. Examples: New teaching methods, effectiveness of treatment ii. Basic research: Enhance the general body of knowledge; Foundation 1. Precursor for applied research a. Examples: Structure of the visual system, motivations of a depressed person iii. Translational research: Tests applications; Acts as a bridge between basic and applied 1. Basic research > Translational research > Applied research 5. Publication Process (pg. 15) a. Scientific journals i. Peer-reviewed (by experts) > Rigorous 6. Journal > Journalism a. Journalism: Read and targeted to a mass, and popular, audience i. Examples: Psychology Today, Men’s Health ii. Benefits for the reader depend on: 1. Journalists reporting the most important scientific stories 2. Journalists must describe the research accurately Psych 3510: Chapter 1 Lecture Intro to Methods and Statistics 1. Benefits of Being a Good Consumer a. Make sure the data is good and evidence-based 2. Psychologists a. Develop theories b. Conduct basic and applied research c. Answer questions about behavior and mental processes d. Make it public (critical) 3. Psychology is not a pseudoscience (soft science) vs. a “hard” science (chemistry, biology) 4. Basic research a. Questions: Under what conditions? When do these conditions change? b. Has manipulations i. Example 1: How do baby pandas play fight with their siblings? How do they play with their mother? ii. Example 2: How age affects the body > When does arthritis occur in different age groups? 5. Translational research a. Questions: How can it be applied? i. Basic (foundation) > Translational (i.e. treatment) > Applied (real-life situations, individuals) 6. Applied research a. Questions: What/which is best? b. Measures effectiveness 7. “Data” is plural (side note) 8. Good Theories a. Weight of evidence: Don’t prove anything, just provides evidence to support or not support data 9. Example: When Do People Cheat? a. Rationalization Theory vs. Rational Gain-Loss Theory (Refer to PowerPoint on iCollege) b. Look at “Experiment: Cheating” slide 10. Scientific Method a. Goals i. Describe ii. Predict iii. Explain iv. Control b. Work toward a theory c. Steps i. Observe behavior ii. Form a hypothesis iii. Use hypothesis to create a testable prediction iv. Evaluate the prediction with observations v. Use observations to support/refute/refine the original hypothesis Psych 3510: Intro to Statistics 1. Descriptive Statistics vs. Inferential Statistics a. Descriptive statistics: Report collected data i. Variables: Characteristics of the studied population (age, gender, BMI) 1. Nominal measurements a. Numbers for variables b. Cannot be treated mathematically 2. Ordinal measurements a. Order of variables (classifications, categories) 3. Interval measurements: Difference between measurements 4. Ratio measurements: All possible math calculations ii. Dependent variables: What the researcher is interested in iii. Independent variables: Influence the dependent variables; manipulated or treatment variable iv. Distribution 1. Normal: Scores are clustered near the middle of observed values; symmetric 2. Skewed: Scores are clustered more to the left/right side v. Averages (or, central tendency) 1. Mean = Sum of scores ÷ Number of scores 2. Mode = Most common score 3. Median = Middle value of numerically ordered set of scores vi. Variability 1. Range = Highest score – Lowest score 2. Standard deviation b. Inferential studies: Used to make an educated guess i. Sample > Probability, simple random, stratified, systematic ii. Confidence intervals (CI): Shows within which interval the population mean will probably decrease 1. Usually 95% > This means there is a 5% chance that researchers made a wrong decision 2. Statistical tests: Calculate whether differences are statistically significant a. Parametric i. Require several assumptions ii. Data must be normally distributed b. Non-parametric i. Less strict ii. Variables that are not normally distributed can be used iii. Less precise c. Categorical (nominal) i. Dependent variable (outcome) is categorical ii. ???? (chi-squared test): Compares the differences between the observed and expected frequencies (if there is no relationship between the two variables) 1. Probability (p-value) is given = Two means are not different from each other a. Example: If the probability is 5% or less, (p < 0.05), there is a significant difference. If p ≥ 0.05, then there is no significant difference. d. Continuous: Dependent variable is continuous (interval and ration measurements) i. Student’s t-test 1. T-test = Independent groups 2. Paired t-test = Two measures of the same person e. Groups of measurements: F-ratio > analysis of variance (ANOVA) i. One-way ANOVA: Relationship between one categorically independent variable (different groups/interventions) and one continuous (interval/ratio) variable ii. Multifactor ANOVA f. Linear regression and analyses: Independent and dependent variable are continuous; describes both as a linear line


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