Chapter 2 Notes
Chapter 2 Notes psych 3404
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This 8 page Class Notes was uploaded by olivia maeder on Saturday August 27, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to psych 3404 at 1 MDSS-SGSLM-Langley AFB Advanced Education in General Dentistry 12 Months taught by Ann Blumer in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 5 views. For similar materials see Developmental Psychology in Psychology at 1 MDSS-SGSLM-Langley AFB Advanced Education in General Dentistry 12 Months.
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Date Created: 08/27/16
1 PSYC 3404— Chapter 2 Study guide Terms: Gamete: a sex cell Zygote: the new cell formed by the process of fertilization Gene: the basic unit of genetic information, segment of DNA Genotype: the underlying combination of genetic material present in an organism Phenotype: an observable trait, the trait that is actually seen Mutation: a permanent change in the sequencing of DNA, can be spontaneous by chance, or by damage genetic mapping: process of establishing the locations of genes on the chromosomes alleles: variant form of a gene additive genes: contribute to phenotype usually in combination with other additive genes homozygous: inheriting from parents similar genes for a specific trait heterozygous: inheriting from parents different genes for a specific trait carrier (for recessive trait): Has one dominant and one recessive, does not show in phenotype sexlinked genes: genes that are considered recessive and found either only on X or Y chromosome polygenic inheritance: inheritance in which a combination of multiple gene pairs is responsible for the production of a particular trait epigenetics: how environmental factors affect genetic expression germinal period: the first and shortest stage of prenatal period, which takes place from conception to week 2 conception: fertilization of ovum and sperm, occurs in fallopian tubes blastocyst: fertilized egg cell differentiation: cells become specialized for particular tasks, pertaining to what they will eventually become embryonic period: the period from 2 weeks to 2 months, significant growth occurs in the major organs and body systems endoderm, mesoderm, ectoderm: Endoderm: inner layer, produces digestive system, liver, pancreas, and respiratory system. Mesoderm: middle layer, produces muscles, bones, blood, circulatory system. Ectoderm: outer layer, produces skin, hair, teeth, sense organs, and brain and spinal cord. Amnion: bag of fluid in which the embryo floats Placenta: group of tissues that interface between mother and baby, provides embryo with oxygen and nutrients, removes waste fetal period: the stage of prenatal that begins 8 weeks and continues until birth trimester: corresponds to 3 month periods organogenesis: organs start to form neurogenesis: develops new neurons synaptogenesis amounts of interconnections between neurons increase teratogens: any agent or condition that can cause harm to unborn child age of viability: the age at which a fetus may survive outside the womb, about 22 weeks Apgar scale: (1) color; (2) heart rate; (3) reflexes; (4) muscle tone; and (5) respiration. Each of these components is given a score of 0, 1, or 2. kangaroo care: skin to skin contact with parent, 23 hours per day, coordinates respiratory and heart rates 2 low birth weight: less than 5.5 lb preterm infant: born prior to 38 weeks small for gestational age: birth weight is low when length of pregnancy is taken into account postmature infant: remains unborn 2 weeks or more past due date postpartum blues: low mood, anxious, upset, peaks 35 days after pregnancy postpartum depression: major depression episode, interferes with their ability to function and cope with daily tasks and affect interactions with baby. Questions: 1. How many human genes are there, and what percent of these do all human share in common? Between 20,00025,000 genes Share 99.9% 2. What types of human characteristics are controlled by the very small number of genes that humans do NOT share in common? What characteristics are controlled by the majority of genes that we DO share in common? The .1% is what distinguishes us individually: individuals—skin color, eye shape and color, all your other facial features, and IQ, athletic ability or other innate skills, temperament, predisposition to develop certain physical conditions or mental illnesses The rest are the genes that make up the human race 3. How many chromosomes do most human cells contain? What about gametes? 1. 46 23 pairs in most human cells 2. 23 unpaired in gametes 4. What is the difference between a genotype and a phenotype? Explain why your phenotype may not match your genotype in a situation where you’ve inherited a gene for a particular disease. Genotypes are the actual genetic material that is inherited Phenotypes are the way the genotype is expressed 5. Genetically speaking, what is the difference between monozygotic twins and dizygotic twins? How do they differ in terms of early prenatal development—in other words, how do they come into being? Monozygotic are identical twins with the same genetic code, this is because they come from the fertilization of one sperm and one ovum that splits in prenatal development Dizygotic twins are fraternal twins, they arise from fertilization of two ova 6. T/F: the incidence of monozygotic twins differs significantly depending on one’s culture. FALSE – true for dizygotic, can very depending on ethnic group and can run in family 3 7. T or F: if you have a gene for a particular trait, that means you will actually develop that trait. Explain your answer. FALSE – just because you have a genotype to be tall, does not mean you actually will be, also some gene depend on external factors 8. What is a gene and what is its basic function? Short segment for DNA Assembles proteins throughout the body and the proteins are used to create cells and to regulate processes throughout the body 9. Why do some scientists go so far as to say there is really only one race: the human race? Because 99.9% of the genes that make us up are the same for everyone 10. T/F: most human traits are controlled by one gene acting alone. FALSE – another gene can modify the effect of a certain gene, most genes are polygenic, meaning that multiple are involved, most are also multifactorial, meaning that they are influenced by many factors 11. What 3 factors account for genetic differences between siblings of the same parents? 1. Genetic code of each egg and sperm is unique 2. Mutation – a permanent change in the sequencing of DNA 3. Variation in phenotype 12. Which parent determines the gender of their child? Explain how this works. Father – only father can pass on the Y chromosome to determine if child is a boy 13. What is the difference between a dominant and a recessive gene? Dominant: if you have it you will have the trait, only one copy has to be present Recessive: two copies must be present to have the trait 14. Explain how children might exhibit recessive characteristics that are not seen in a parent—like how children of 2 browneyed parents could have blue eyes. (think about possible alleles of the parents and children—heterozygous and homozygous) Both the mother and the father must be Bb, 1/4 of the genotypes would be bb 15. Name some conditions that are due to sexlinked genes and explain how this type of inheritance pattern works. Sex linked genes are carried only on the xchromosome or only on the ychromosome Xlinked recessive rarely have dominant counterpart on Y so only one copy needed, thus affect males more often than females o Ex: colorblindness and hemophilia If Ylinked only males would be affected 16. T/F: Xlinked hemophilia affects (ie., produces the phenotype in) only the daughters of women who carry a recessive gene for the condition. Explain your answer. 4 FALSE – sons will have the condition because they will receive it from their mothers and no counterpart from their fathers 17. T/F: the Ychromosome is small and carries only unimportant genes. 1. FALSE – it is small but carries important genes for determining sex 18. Describe some ways that multiple genes might be involved in the transmission of a particular trait. Depends on environmental condition, like receiving genes for tall but due to poor nutrition the phenotype is not expressed, in other cases there are various environmental protective factors such as good diet, low stress, and strong social support. 19. What is the nature vs nurture debate, and how does psychology resolve that debate today? (consider not only nurture’s effect on nature, but also how nature can affect nurture) Studies of twins have supplied information resolving debate, control for some of the factors involved in the development might be due to environment or to genetic Studies of identical twins separated by adoption give information on two individuals who are genetically identical but raised in different environment Genetic inheritance can influence developing in a particular way, whether physical, IQ, personality traits or behavior Environmental factors can influence such as how you were raised, relationships, culture, negative experiences JOINT OUTCOME 20. What are the 3 prenatal stages of development? 1. The Germinal Period : conception to 2 weeks. i. Conception(fertilization) occurs in fallopian tubes, sperm must already be there at time of ovulation, around day 14 of normal 28 day menstrual ii. Now fertilized egg is a zygote iii. Moves down to uterus where it starts initial cell division iv. Within 1 week initial cells are beginning to differentiate v. Becomes implanted during second week (60% don’t implant) 2. Embryonic Period : 2 weeks to 2 months i. Organogenesis: organs start to form ii. Embryo: ball of cells iii. 3 layers of cells form, the inner endoderm (will develop into digesting and reparatory systems), the middle mesoderm (will become the circulatory system, bones, muscles, excretory system, and reproductive system), and the outer ectoderm (brain, spinal cord, organs, and skin) iv. neural tube, the CNS v. head appears in week 4, head and brain grow rapidly vi. beginnings of heart appear vii. limbs appear in week 5 viii. at end of 8 weeks all organs except sex organs 5 ix. at 8 weeks embryo is vaguely human like, moves frequently but not yet noticeable to mother, inch long and 1/30 oz x. development of lifesupport system: umbilical cord, amnion(bag of fluid where embryo floats), placenta(group of tissures that interface between the embryo and mother, supplies oxygen and nutrients, removes waste) 3. Fetal Period : 2 months to birth i. Developing child now called a fetus ii. Rapid growth and complexity iii. Limbs develop hands and feet, fingers and toes iv. Organs begin to work v. Brain grows larger, connections between neurons become complex, myelin begins to get laid down vi. 35 months fetus doubles in length every 30 days – 3 months, 3 oz, 3 in vii. at three months fetus can move limbs, move mouth, move head, facial features evident, genital organs begin viii. at 4 months mother can feel arm and leg movements ix. by 5 months more active, other people can feel, gender evident mb x. through ultrasound, fine hair all over body xi. at 6 months has a chance of living outside the womb xii. months 89 organs systems begin, develops fatty tissue, avg at birth 7/5 lb and 20 in in length xiii. brain develops more in months 46 then entire life span, neurogenesis takes place, divides into 2 hemispheres, cerebral cortex develops fold and wrinkles, CNS begins to regulate. 21. During which prenatal stage does conception occur? When does nutritional support system for the developing child get created? What event marks the transition between the germinal and embryonic stages? During which stage would you expect the mother to be able to feel the movements of her unborn child? Conception occurs during germinal stage Nutritional support is created during embryonic period Neural tube and cell division mark transition from germinal to embryonic Feel movements in fetal period 22. In what part of the woman’s reproductive organs does conception occur? 1. Conception occurs in the fallopian tubes 23. At what point in the month is a woman considered to be most fertile? 1. Most fertile day 14/28 day cycle 24. At what week of prenatal development would you expect cell differentiation to begin? 1. Cells begin to differentiate in week 1 25. What event must occur during the germinal stage for the zygote to continue to survive? What percent of zygotes do not survive this point of development? 1. 60% of zygotes don’t implant in the uterus 6 26. Which layer of the embryo will become the brain and spinal cord? 1. The outer layer, the ectoderm, will become brain and spinal cord 27. T/F: Rudimentary limbs began to develop during week 5 of prenatal development. TRUE 28. When does neurogenesis begin to occur during prenatal development? Neurogenesis occurs in the fetal period, 29. The fetal stage is marked by astounding development in what aspect of the fetus? Rapid growth and everything becoming more complex occurs during fetal stage 30. How big is a fetus at 3 months? What types of movements is it able to make? At 3 months the child is 3 inches, 3 oz, and can move head, limbs, and mouth 31. At what month of prenatal development is gender of the child likely to be apparent via a sonogram? When do the organs begin to function? During which month is brain development at its peak? Gender can be determined at month 5 Organs begin to function in month 2 Brain development in peak during months 46 32. Compare trimesters to the 3 prenatal stages of development. Trimesters correspond to 3 month periods First trimester includes germinal, embryonic, and beginning of fetal stage Second and third trimesters include fetal stage 33. What are some common teratogens? Chemicals: drugs, alcohol, nicotine, radiation Environmental pollutants Malnutrition stress 34. In what ways can age of the mother pose a risk to her child’s prenatal development? Highest risk are adolescent mother and mothers over age 35 35. If a woman is planning to become pregnant, what types of issues should she discuss with her doctor? Nutrition Emotional state Drug use Immunizations and medications 36. What paternal factors might affect the health of the unborn child? Alcohol use during week of conception 7 Exposure to radiation and environmental toxins Secondhand smoke 37. What are some circumstances in which a Csection might be considered? Baby is in breeched position Fetus distress by lack of oxygen (anoxia) Large head, small pelvic Failure to normally progress through stage 2 Health concerns for mother or baby 38. Describe the 3 stages of the birth process— generally speaking, what happens in each stage? How long does each stage tend to last? 1. About 38 weeks after conception, release of hormones, oxytocin causes contractions, first contractions are 10 min apart lasting 30 sec, then every 25 min lasting 2 min, by end of stage cervix has dilated i. Longest stage: 1624 hours, shortens after multiple births 2. Starts when baby’s head moves through birth canal (“crowning”), ends when baby emerges from mother’s body, babies usually cry which helps clear lungs i. Lasts about 4590 min 3. Placenta and umbilical cord expelled from body i. Lasts few minutes 39. What is an Apgar score and in general, what does it tell a medical professional about the baby? Used to asses 1. Color 2. Heart rate 3. Reflexes 4. Muscle tone 5. Respiration 710 good, 46 moderate issues, 03 indicates major issues done 1 min and again 5 min after birth Appearance, Pulse, Grimace, Activity, Respiration 40. What are some common causes contributing to having a low birth weight infant? Preterm Maternal drug use (25% nicotine) Malnutrition, mother may be underweight at beginning of pregnancy 41. T/F: No more than about 25% of all low birth weight babies will require special education. FALSE – about 50% will require some special education 42. What types of health issues are most of concern with a premature baby? Late developmental milestones 50% need special education visual and hearing impairments behavioral issues (crying more, attention problems, disobedient) 43. Are there any risks to the health of a postmature unborn child? 8 Insufficient nourishment via the placenta, fetus requires more than mother can provide Decrease blood flow to the brain 44. T/F: Most women experience postpartum depression; it’s considered a normal adjustment to giving birth. FALSE – 70% experience “postpartum blues”
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