Lifespan Notes Week 2
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Ashlyn Masters on Saturday August 27, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 2010 at Auburn University taught by Carol L. Roberson in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 36 views. For similar materials see Lifespan Human Development in Family Context in HDFS at Auburn University.
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Date Created: 08/27/16
Chapter 1 (cont.) 8/22/16 Theoretical Perspectives (cont.) • Skip psychoanalytic (Freud) • Erikson’s psychosocial development theory o Psychosocial: focuses on our interactions with others and society o Will eventually need to know the stages • Behavioral Perspective: emphasis on observable behavior o Classical Conditioning: Pavlov’s dogs, Little Albert o Operant Conditioning: voluntary behavior governed primarily by consequences • Social Cognitive Learning Theory: behavior learned by observing others and consequences • Cognitive Perspective: emphasis on how to represent, understand and think about the world o ***Piaget- emphasized qualitative change o ***Information processing- emphasizes quantitative change o Vygotksy’s sociocultural theory: development occurs within context of interaction and culture • Evolutionary Perspective: how genetics/biology impact behavior Chapter 2 8/24/16 Nature vs. Nurture • Genetics sets a range of possibilities called the reaction range • Genetics have impact on: o Physical characteristics o Intelligence (50%) – genetics and environmental o Temperament and personality o Psychiatric disorders (anxiety, depression, bipolar, schizophrenia) • Genes can impact environment o Active genotype-environment effects: children choose environments they enjoy, or that match abilities based on their genes (ex: a child likes to read because one or both of their parents likes to read) o Passive genotype-environment effects: parents’ genes influence the child’s environment, and child is receptive if shares genes (ex: parent may provide books) o Evocative genotype-environment effects: child’s genes elicit and evoke a particular environment (ex: if child is interested in bedtime stories, parent will read more) • Epigenetics: emphasizes that development is the result of an ongoing, bidirectional interchange between heredity and environment o “Above the genome” o Looks at genes we have as well as environmental effects that could turn certain genes on/off Chapter 3 8/24/16 Prenatal Threats to Development • Teratogen: environmental agent that produces a birth defect • Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS): birth defect that can cause mental retardation, facial asymmetries, small head (due to the mother’s consumption of alcohol while pregnant) o May increase risk of ADHD o Primary preventable cause of mental retardation o There is NO safe time to drink during pregnancy • Central Nervous System (CNS) is very susceptible throughout most of pregnancy • Smoking o Low birth weight, retarded growth, increased risk of SIDS (sudden infant death syndrome) o Third-hand smoking: you go outside and smoke, it gets on your clothing, baby inhales/swallows the particles on your clothing • Mercury exposure o Memory, sensory and emotional impairment o Sources- fish (tuna, swordfish), environment (water supplies) Chapter 3 8/26/16 Prenatal Threats to Development (cont.) • Spina Bifida o Cause: lack of folic acid early in pregnancy • Lead (often postnatal exposure) o Can cause a variety of neurobiological problems including lower IQ o Cause: exposure to paint, leaded gas or water in Flint Michigan • Zika o Causes microcephaly Prenatal Development • Germinal stage (fertilization to 2 weeks) o Cells divide rapidly o Zygote attaches to uterine wall o When most miscarriages occur • Embryonic stage (2-8 weeks) o Major organs and body systems start to grow • Fetal stage (8 weeks to birth) o Major organs differentiate o Fetus kicks and clenches fist (4-5 months) o Can hear sounds outside uterus o Reflexes emerge o Hormones released that lead to gender § *Fun fact (but not necessary to know): research shows males may masturbate in utero Miscarriage and Still Birth • Miscarriage o 15-20% of pregnancies o Mostly genetic abnormalities o Mostly early in pregnancy • Still birth o New evidence suggests that still births may be result of placental problems and that monitoring, early delivery, can help •
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