Sexuality Notes week 2
Sexuality Notes week 2 HDFS 3040-001
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Ashlyn Masters on Saturday August 27, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to HDFS 3040-001 at Auburn University taught by Carol L. Roberson in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 3 views. For similar materials see Human Sexuality Over the Family Life Cycle in HDFS at Auburn University.
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Date Created: 08/27/16
Chapter 2: Sex Research 8/22/16 Sex Research • What might make it different than other types of research? What are the particular challenges you can imagine? o More personal/more intimate à might lie about their answers o May have trouble finding subjects if you want to research the biological factors • Survey problems o Nonresponse: many people may refuse to participate o Self-selection/volunteer bias: those who do respond may differ in significant ways from those who don’t (more comfortable with their sexuality, more experienced) o Inaccuracy of responses o Purposeful distortion: maximize or minimize sexual activity (m/f differences, age differences) which could include socially desirable responses • Kinsey report o Interviewed over 20,000 subjects in the 1940s and 50s and gave people an idea of how frequently people masturbate, have premarital sexy, extramarital sex, etc. § Book says, “survey research” but it is wrong. He interviewed people o Let people know how similar/dissimilar their behaviors are to others o Made sex research respectable and led to more research in the field • NHSLS study o Another more recent study that looked at sexual behaviors in the US: o Masturbation: men 60%, women 40% o ***Extramarital affairs: men 24%, women 15% o Orgasm during sex (always) § Men 75% § Women 29% • Masters and Johnson o Looked at physiological responses during sexual activity o More recently, fMRIs have been used to look at changes in the brain during sexual thoughts or activities o Other experimental research may be limited in the types of questions that can be addressed (sexual orientation for example) Chapter 3: Female Sexual Anatomy and Physiology 8/24/16 External Structures • Vulva: overriding term for the external structures • Mons veneris: area over the pubic bone, where you see pubic hair o Functions of hair § Vaginal secretions associated with sexual arousal held there § Can enhance sexual pleasure; cushions during sexual activity, may also trap bacteria, etc. § Help prevent vaginal infections • Clitoris: only function appears to be sexual arousal/pleasure o Many more nerve endings than the vagina itself o Stimulation is the most common way that women experience orgasm • Clitoridectomy: removal of clitoris o Genital infibulation: clitoris and labia removed o Vulva stitched up; is this tradition or torture? o Way of keeping young girls virgins until marriage Internal Structures • Vagina o Grafenberg spot (G-spot): front wall of vagina § Stimulation can cause sexual arousal, orgasm, even sometimes ejaculation o Douching: washing out the vagina § Just say no! § Leads to increased pelvic inflammatory disease, endometriosis, increased susceptibility to infections (leading cause of vaginitis), transmission of HIV, ectopic pregnancy, decreased fertility o Feminine-hygiene sprays § Also cause problems, including potentially ***ovarian cancer (talcum powder also possibly implicated in ovarian cancer) • Other structures o Fallopian tubes: pair of tubes along which eggs travel from the ovaries to the uterus § Ectopic pregnancy: a pregnancy in which the fetus develops outside the uterus, particularly in a fallopian tube § Can be fatal if not treated immediately; ruptures tube and causes uncontrolled bleeding Menstruation • Menarche: a girl’s first menstrual period o Timing related to heredity, health, and altitude o Decrease in age over time associated with increased obesity o Non-organic food also causes the age to decrease § The pesticides (the hormones/steroids in them) can affect age of menarche o Some evidence suggests that the peak in estrogen mid-cycle (at ovulation) is associated with increased sexual interest (for women) § More likely to initiate sex then and have more orgasms o Other research suggests that women find “rugged” men more attractive at ovulation, but “softer” men more attractive throughout the rest of the cycle Chapter 3: Female Sexual Anatomy and Physiology (cont.) 8/24/16 Menstrual cycle and fertility • Take day 1 as beginning of cycle. Average cycle is 28 days • For a regular cycle, ovulation occurs at day 14 – plus or minus 2 days, and then sperm may last 2-5 days in a woman’s reproductive tract so add 2 days on each side: this means that on average, “unsafe” days would be days 10-17 • For an irregular cycle of 31 days, the “unsafe” days would be approximately days 6-21 • Note though, that even for “regular” women, stress and other factors may impact the menstrual cycle Menstrual cycle problems • PMS/PMDD (premenstrual dysphoric disorder): relation to drops in estrogen levels in the week prior to menstruation • Physical symptoms include bloating, pain, increase in food cravings • To decrease symptoms: exercise, low salt intake, sexual activity • Psychological symptoms include irritability, depression, mood swings, lack of emotional stability • Control: SSRIs/oral contraceptives can help