Chapter 5 Notes
Chapter 5 Notes psych 3404
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by olivia maeder on Saturday August 27, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to psych 3404 at 1 MDSS-SGSLM-Langley AFB Advanced Education in General Dentistry 12 Months taught by Ann Blumer in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 7 views. For similar materials see Developmental Psychology in Psychology at 1 MDSS-SGSLM-Langley AFB Advanced Education in General Dentistry 12 Months.
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Date Created: 08/27/16
CH 5 Study Guide: Cognitive Development—Piaget and Vygotsky Terms Cognitive development: growth and change in intellectual capabilities and corresponding behavioral changes Piaget’s stages: (for each, know what ages correspond to the stage and be able to generally describe what is characteristic of a child in each stage in terms of his or her cognitive abilities) Sensorimotor: from birth to age 2, children construct understanding of the world through sensory experiences and motor actions 1. Simple reflexes – the only way the baby interacts physically through reflexes, information from the senses 2. First habits and primary circular reactions – “habits” = acquired behaviors, doing things because learned to do them, adapted from reflexes. “circular reactions” = movements that become repeated 3. Secondary circular reactions – act on outside world, more deliberate and almost intentional 4. Coordination of secondary circular reactions – more deliberate, simultaneous actions 5. Tertiary circular reactions – now able to vary actions to create effects, little scientists 6. Beginnings of thought – understanding the word through mental operations Preoperational: from age 27, ability for symbolic thinking grows, mental reasoning emerges, use of conceptions increases Concrete Operational: from age 712, ability to use logical reasoning but only dealing with concreate situations, one they can manipulate physically Formal Operational: from age 1215, gradually develop ability to use hypotheticaldeductive reasoning, extend to abstract logical thinking Other terms relating to Piaget’s theory: Schemes (schema): an organized pattern of sensorimotor functioning Assimilation: the process in which people understand an experience in terms of their current stage of cognitive development and way of thinking Accommodation: changes in existing ways of thinking that occur in response to encounters with new stimuli or events Equilibrium: when existing schemes explain what is around them Disequilibrium: when existing schemes don’t line up with what they are presented Habits: acquired behaviors, adapted from reflexes Circular reactions: movements that become repeated Object permanence: major cognitive advance in sensorimotor stage, the ability to understand that an object continues to exist even though it is no longer visible Invisible displacement: able to develop a mental image, hold it in mind, and manipulate it to solve problems, including object permanence problems that are not based solely on perception Mental representation: an internal image of a past event of object Operations: organized, formal, logical mental processes Centration: the process of concentrating on one limited aspect of a stimulus and ignoring other aspects Conservation: the knowledge that quantity is unrelated to the arrangement and physical appearance of objects AnotB error: at age 812 months, has to do with objet permanence, when repeatedly hid under box A then under box B, child will still look under A Transformation: the process in which one state is changed into another Reversibility: they cannot imagine what would happed if they revered transformation Egocentrism: thinking that does not take into account the viewpoints of others Intuitive thought: thinking that reflects preschooler’s use of primitive reasoning and their avid acquisition of knowledge about the world, unaware of where knowledge came from Hypotheticodeductive reasoning: use of deductive reasoning to systematically manipulate several variables, test effects in systematic way Terms relating to Vygotsky’s theory: More Knowledgeable Others (MKO’s): Model Knowledgeable Others, may be parents, coaches, teachers, or more experienced child. Zone of Proximal Development (ZPD): the cognitive level in which optimal learning can take place Scaffolding: the process of providing support that guides the learner from what is presently known, to what is to be learned Questions 1. What kind of research methods did Piaget primarily base his theory on (how did he gather information about children’s developmental stages)? Piaget did research by examining his children and his friend’s children’s, through naturalistic observation, he also used interviews and observations 2. How did Piaget’s perspective fundamentally differ from that of other early psychologists? Piaget differed from earlier psychologists by arguing that infants learn by doing instead of taught by others. 3. Piaget focused on how the quality of knowledge changes as children develop through each stage. What does this mean? (contrast to quantity of knowledge) Quality refers to how children learn, not how much or how fast they learn. 4. With respect to schemes, what is the difference between assimilation and accommodation? Be able to give an example of each. Assimilation is using ones existing schemes to deal with new information, an example of this is when a child sees a ford focus, it fits in the “car” scheme. Accommodation is when the schemes are adjusted to fit new information, for example a child sees a very old car and is confused, then has to expand “car” scheme. 5. You shouldn’t expect that every child you come across will exactly fit what Piaget said happens in each stage of development. Give a couple of reasons why this is so. (It could be helpful to think about criticisms of Piaget’s theory here.) Not every child will exactly fit Piaget’s stages because he was not accurate with the ages, and children develop differently at different ages. He underestimated some of the abilities of infants by only watching those he knows and having a small sample size. 6. List Piaget’s 4 stages of cognitive development in children and describe, in general, what occurs during each stage. That is, how is each stage different from the others in terms of a child’s cognitive abilities? 1. Sensorimotor stage: children construct understanding through sensory experiences and motor skills (birth to age 2) 2. Preoperational stage: ability for symbolic thinking grows, mental reasoning emerges, use of conception increases (age 27) 3. Concrete operational stage: ability to use logical reasoning but only dealing with concrete situations, one they can manipulate physically (age 712) 4. Formal operational stage: gradually develop ability to use hypothetical deductive reasoning, extend to abstract logical thinking (age 1215) 7. In Piaget’s view, how are habits different from reflexes? How do habits develop from reflexes? Habits are acquired behaviors, where are reflexes you are born with. Habits develop from reflexes because you do them because you learned to do them. 8. What happens in terms of children’s thinking abilities during Piaget’s preoperational stage that permits language development to really expand? Symbolic thought occurs in the last sub stage, you are able to hold an image in ones mind that is not actually present. Understanding that a gesture or group of sounds means something. 9. During what stage of development would you first expect a child to have an understanding of conservation? To be able talk coherently about an abstract topic? To grasp the idea of object permanence? To be able to understand the point of view of another child? To be repeatedly making sounds with a toy? To design experiments that systematically test out the effect of a number of different factors? A child understands conservation in the preoperational stage – age 27 A child understands abstract topic at the end of the formal operational stage – age 1215 A child understands object permanence in the sensorimotor stage – age birth2 A child is less egocentric in the concrete operational stage – age 712 A child repeatedly makes sounds with toys as an experiment in the tertiary circular reactions – age 1218 months 10. There are 6 substages in Piaget’s Sensorimotor stage. Describe the general progression of cognitive development as children move through these substages. Think here about the degree of intention attached to their actions —specifically, how does this change as the child moves through the substages? 1. Simple reflexes: baby interacts physically through reflexes 2. First habits and primary circular reactions: habits are acquired behaviors, circular reactions are actions that are repeated 3. Secondary circular reactions: act on outside world, more deliberate and almost intentional 4. Coordination of secondary circular reactions: more deliberate, simultaneous actions 5. Tertiary circular reactions: now able to vary actions to create effects, little scientists 6. Beginnings of thought: understanding the world through mental operations 11. What is the importance of the cognitive level reached during sensorimotor substage 6? In substage 6 the symbolic thought is essential for development of language, the child can now know that a particular gesture or sounds means something. 12. In which of the sensorimotor substages do children begin to repeatedly interact with objects in their environment? Which substage is associated with the “little scientist” behavior, as Piaget called it? Children begin to act like little scientists during the tertiary circular reactions. 13. What is the “little scientist” able to do that s/he had not been doing in previous substages of development? The little scientist is able to vary actions to examine the different outcomes 14. Consider the following situations: 1) an infant understands that a particular gesture means “goodbye;” 2) an infant imitates something that another infant did the previous day; and 3) an infant sees mom pick up her car keys and understands that mom is leaving the house. What is the common thread in these situations—what do they all indicate about the infant’s cognitive development? These situations resemble mental representation, where a child develops the ability to carry out in his mind an internal image or symbol of past event or object not in sight. 15. During which sensorimotor substage (and what age?) would you expect a child to begin to show signs of understanding object permanence? A child begins to show object permanence during substage 3, age 48 months 16. At what age would you expect a child to no longer be making the AnotB error? The child would no longer make the AnotB error at age 12 months 17. At what age would you expect a child to have a full understanding of object permanence, to the point where they notice the absence of objects that they did not observe someone removing? The child has a full understanding of object permanence at substage 6, age 2 18. Suppose that you are volunteering in an elementary school and are asked to help children with their math homework. You notice that one child is counting on his fingers in order to get the right answers to simple addition problems. What does that tell you about the child’s cognitive development— which of Piaget’s stages might he be in? If a child is counting on his fingers, he would be considered to be in preoperational stage. 19. How did Piaget test children for egocentrism? Piaget tested children for egocentrism with the mountain task, and asked what what they would think a doll would see and the other end of the table, if they described what they saw it was egocentric. 20. T/F: By the time people reach adulthood, they are capable of abstract thinking in all situations. Explain your answer. False, not everyone reaches abstract thinking 21. In Vygotsky’s view, what are the 2 major elements that influence cognitive development and learning? Describe how, in Vygotsky’s view, each of these elements shapes cognitive development. According to Vygotsky, culture determines the way we are taught, and social interaction is how we learn cognitive strategies and other kills from interactions with others who are more knowledgeable. 22. Sketch a diagram showing where the ZPD is in relation to a child’s current skills and what they cannot do independently. 23. What are 4 teaching strategies that are based on Vygotsky’s theory? 4 teaching strategies are (1) asses ZPD (2) teach child in ZPD (3) use more skilled peers as teachers (4) encourage private speech 24. Describe how a tutor could use scaffolding to teach a child (who already knows how to add) how to multiply two numbers together. A tutor could use scaffolding to help guide them, by talking out the problem with simpler words, for example when you multiply by two you are adding two of the same number, and when you multiply by 3 you add three of the same number. 25. Potentially, who are 3 categories of people in a child’s life that might be MKO’s? Potential MKO’s are (1) parents (2) siblings (3) teachers (4) coaches 26. Compare Vygotsky’s and Piaget’s ideas about whether children learn by their own efforts and experimentation or rather they require social interaction. Vygotsky believes in a quantitative approach and that kids learn through social interaction, he says it then becomes internalized, and that MKO’s help to guide this process. Piaget looks at a more qualitative approach, where children learn independently from independence.
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