Chapter 6 Notes
Chapter 6 Notes psych 3404
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by olivia maeder on Saturday August 27, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to psych 3404 at 1 MDSS-SGSLM-Langley AFB Advanced Education in General Dentistry 12 Months taught by Ann Blumer in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 6 views. For similar materials see Developmental Psychology in Psychology at 1 MDSS-SGSLM-Langley AFB Advanced Education in General Dentistry 12 Months.
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Date Created: 08/27/16
1 CH 6 Study Guide: Cognitive Growth—Information Processing Approaches Terms Information Processing Approach: considers how people take in, use, and store information 3 processes involved in Information Processing: Encoding: initial learning of info, process of taking info in, in some form that is useable to the senses Storage: maintaining information over time; saving info into memory Retrieval: recalling info from memory storage Automatic processing: without deliberate conscious effort Controlled processing: deliberately invest large amounts of effort AtkinsonShiffrin view of memory storage (Explain what each is, and how long information is held in each): Sensory store: where information/stimulus goes when it first enters awareness (fractions of a second) Shortterm memory: selective information that you attend to is processed to be held longer (1520 seconds) Longterm memory: information is sufficiently processed in STM, gets passed on to relatively permanent memory storage (indefinitely) Working memory: alternate for STM, working memory that temporarily holds pieces of information as long as we are working with them Chunking: taking individual pieces of information and grouping them into larger units Memory span: amount of chunks that can be help, 7 +/ 2 Rehearsal: the conscious repetition of material Elaborative rehearsal: building the associations around the information, that will help it become stored in LTM and more likely ably to be retrieved. Linkage: things that go together can be linked together, new info can be linked to existing stored info, link to an analogy or metaphor. Longterm memory: 2 major types 1. Declarative: memory for factual information such as names, dates, and facts a. Semantic: processes ideas and concepts that are not drawn from personal experience. b. Episodic (autobiographical): person's unique memory of a specific event, so it will be different from someone else's recollection of the same experience 2 . Procedural: relating to skills and habits such as how to ice skate or ride a bike Infantile amnesia: lack of memory for experiences occurring prior to 3 years of age Metamemory: understanding of how your memory works Dementia: any illness that produces serious, progressive, and often irreversible cognitive decline Questions Explain how information processing views the human brain as being analogous to a computer. 1. You have to input information, like on a keyboard on a computer 2. You have to save information, like on a storage device 3. You have to use information again, recall from storage 2 4. The more you use the more efficient Explain how information processing views cognitive development as consisting of quantitative changes whereas Piaget’s theory views it as consisting of qualitative changes— what does this mean; how are these approaches different? Qualitative changes are able to do tasks with greater speed, organize better, more connections, and are able to store and retrieve more information. going from intuitive thinking, to logical thinking only in concrete situations, to ultimately reaching abstract reasoning ability. What types of changes occur in the developing child’s brain that enable the child to process information more quickly and more efficiently as s/he grows up? Quantitative changes are increased myelination, increased connectivity, thickening of corpus callosum, increasing specialization. What happens during each process involved in information processing? (this question refers to encoding, storage, retrieval) Encoding: initial learning of info, process of taking info in, in some form that is useable to senses Storage: maintaining info over time, saving info to memory Retrieval: recalling info from memory storage Failure of memory may be due to any of the 3 processes described in the previous question. Which process has most likely failed if: 1. You think you “know” the material but the instructor asks a question in a manner differently than you studied it, and you can’t recall the answer. Retrieval 2. You don’t know what is written on the “heads” side of a penny (this question assumes you are not a coin collector!). Encoding 3. You could recall the material as you were studying it last night, but not this morning. Storage What is required for information to move from the sensory store to shortterm memory? For information to move from the sensory store to shortterm memory it must be paid attention to What type of sensory information is held for the longest period of time in sensory memory? Hearing is held the longest in sensory memory, for about 67 seconds What is required for information to move from shortterm memory to longterm memory? You must use a strategy to make information be held longer in LTM What is the capacity of shortterm memory for adults? How can you expand this capacity? The capacity of STM is 7 +/2 chunks, can be expanded by grouping information. Describe the differences in shortterm memory capacity as children age from infancy to early adolescence—be specific. Memory span of children increase in quantity slows with age How can you extend the duration of time something is held in shortterm memory? You can extend the duration of time something is held in STM by rehearsing What is the capacity of longterm memory? LTM has unlimited amount of information indefinitely. Compare the differences between sensory memory, STM, and LTM in terms of how long information is held in each. Sensory is stored for fractions of a second, STM is stored for seconds, LTM is stored indefinitely 3 The more you know about a particular topic, the easier it is learn (that is, remember) new material that is related to that topic. Explain this statement. The more semantic meaning you have the more it will stick with you, and information that you can link to existing information. Describe 3 ways you could use elaborative rehearsal during your studying for a course. 1. Link together things that go together 2. link to analogy or metaphor 3. link new info to existing info How is it possible that a person could lose all their memory for the events of their life, but still recall how to ride a bike or tie their shoes (assuming the person had learned these things at some point). A person can loose all their memory for the events in life but still recall how to ride a bike because they may not have paid attention to it, so it was either not encoded or was not stored well. What changes as you get older: the kinds of things that initially attract your attention, or the things that hold your attention? The things that hold your attention change as you get older Why are children under the age of 5 less able to recall their experiences than older children? Children under the age of 5 are less able to recall their experiences than older children because their attention is not concentrated Compare children’s attention span during infancy with the preschool years. During infancy attention span is just a few minutes, in preschool years they are less distracted and can spend about 7 min on a single activity. Imagine that you’ve been invited to do a presentation for your virtual child’s kindergarten class. In designing activities for the children, how long should the activities take to keep the children’s attention? The activities should be no longer than 7 minutes for preschoolers. Why do preschool age children often ask irrelevant questions or have trouble remembering directions, etc.? (this question is asking about the salient dimensions of a situation). Why don’t older children have this issue to the same extent? Preschool age children often ask irrelevant questions because they focus on stimuli that stand out. Talk about how preschool children have difficulty with planning ability. (Address the issues of centration, lack of a systematic approach, and lack of impulse control.) Preschool children have difficulty with planning because of centration, they don’t think systematically or think about the steps involved. In general, why do individuals younger than their 20’s have difficulty considering the consequences of their actions—what has not yet happened in their physical development? Planning involved impulse control, because of a lack of frontal lobe and prefrontal cortex. Discuss RoveeCollins’ study of memory in babies. They attached a ribbon to the leg and mobile, baby remembered cause and effect, could not recall days later, 6 month old remembered few weeks later. What is a reason why people can’t recall events that occurred before age 3, even when memories have actually been laid down in the brain? (we talked about 3 reasons) 4 1. memory may be there but not be able to recall 2. new information can interfere 3. not enough words to create memories According to Myers’ study, how long can 6month old babies recall stimuli to which they were exposed? The 6 month old babies could recall the stimuli for 1.5 and 2.5 years Discuss the suggestibility of preschool children’s memory. If they are to be interviewed or be a witness in a court case, how should an interviewer speak with them to avoid creating inaccurate recall? Preschoolers are highly susceptible to suggestions from others and can easily be convinced of something that is inaccurate. They should be interviewed using a neutral tone with no leading questions. Why are children able to process information more quickly as they get older? Memory improves because attention span improves, brain maturation allows process info more quickly, and uses tactics to improve recall. At what age would you expect children to have some understanding of how their memory works (metamemory skills)? Children would have some understanding of metamemory skills by age 5. What are some reasons why adolescents’ memory is better than younger children’s? The adolescents memory is better than younger children’s because they have higher levels of education, are active, and have occupational attainment. At what point in adulthood is memory at its peak? Talk about how memory changes in middle adulthood for some people—what type of memory changes? Adulthood memory peaks in early adulthood. LTM starts to decline in middle adulthood, no changes in STM or sensory. The brain of older adults beings to shrink and decrease in connections and myelin. T/F: most people over the age of 85 have severe dementia. FALSE, 1/3 over the age of 85 have severe dementia
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