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Biomechanics - Week 1 notes

by: Taelor Oppliger

Biomechanics - Week 1 notes KINE 302

Marketplace > Rice University > Kinesiology > KINE 302 > Biomechanics Week 1 notes
Taelor Oppliger
Rice University
GPA 3.61
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About this Document

Notes over week 1 material -- Different biomechanic studies, vectors, forces, work and energy
Jaime Aparicio
Class Notes




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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Taelor Oppliger on Saturday August 27, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to KINE 302 at Rice University taught by Jaime Aparicio in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 77 views. For similar materials see Biomechanics in Kinesiology at Rice University.


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Date Created: 08/27/16
Week 1 – August 22 History of Biomechanics  Aristotle – focused mostly on animals  Leonardo da Vinci – started to focus on people and their movements  Galileo Gailei – suggested that bones are hollow and that this affords maximum strength with minimum weight  Rene Descartes Kinesiology = study of human movement Biomechanics = study of the movement of living things using the science of mechanics  Kinematics = motion of bodies displacement, velocity, and acceleration (nothing about cause of motion)  Kinetics = force and work that produce motion force, momentum and energy  Vectors = mechanical variables with force Why we study biomechanics  Sports enhancement (technique vs physiology)  increase anatomical factors, neuromuscular skills, physiological capacities  Injury prevention and treatment  movement safety, understanding of tissues understand the implementations of and the use of support objects KINEMATICS  Displacement = change in position  Velocity= Rate of movement in a certain direction (m/s)  Acceleration = change in velocity with respect to time (m/s ) (gravity)  Kinematic Motion o Linear = all points move equidistant in the same direction  Translation  Rectilinear  Distance around the circumference = radius(angle of distance traveled) o Angular = circular path about one stationary point  Measure in degrees and radians  Velocity of going around = radius(acceleration around that point) o There is a direct relationship between linear and angular measures Joint Motion: Anatomical position  Cardinal planes 1. Sagittal = flexion/extension – coronal axis – separates you into left and right 2. Frontal = abduction/adduction – A/P axis – separates you into front and back 3. Transverse= medial/lateral rotation – separates you into top and bottom Arthrokinematics  Accessory movements 1. Spin 2. Glide 3. Roll  Convex (bone ending) on concave (bone ending) = roll/slide in opposite direction  Concave (bone ending) on convex (bone ending) = roll/slide in same direction Kinematic Analysis  Position/Time Data o Slope = velocity = (y2-y1)/(x2-x1) WILL BE ON TEST  Velocity/Time Data o Slope = acceleration = same KINETICS Mass = amount of matter making up an object Weight = force acting on an object due to gravity Center of mass = “center of gravity” = Point at which a body’s mass is evenly distributed Force  Actions of one body action on another  Represented as a vector with o Magnitude o Direction o Point of application  Unit = newton  Types of forces 1. Tensile = collinear in opposite directions  ligament tear 2. Compressive = collinear in the same direction  compression fracture 3. Shear/Coplanar = opposite direction but not collinear  blisters  Wolfe’s Law = Bone has to have load and force acting on it to grow  Force systems 1. Linear 2. Parallel 3. Concurrent 4. General (different directions and magnitudes – not organized) 5. Force Couple (what you see the most in the body – leads to rotation around an axis) Newton’s Laws 1. Law of Inertia = every body continues in a state of rest or uniform motion unless acted upon by a force (aka – force is needed to move or stop anything) 2. And object’s force is related to mass and acceleration  Impulse-Momentum  Impulse = F x dt 3. For every action, there is an equal and opposite reaction Work and Power  Work = F x D (in Joules) (area under the curve on a graph)  Power = Work/Time (in watts – 1 wtt = 1 J/s) Energy  Capacity for doing work  Kinetic = in motion  Potential = stored Levers 1. First Class Levers  Fulcrum between force and resistance 2. Second Class  Resistance between fulcrum and force 3. Third Class  Most common in out body  Effort located between fulcrum and resistance {FRE 123 = what is in the middle}


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