ENG 267: World Literature 1700 AD to Present, Week 1 Notes
ENG 267: World Literature 1700 AD to Present, Week 1 Notes ENGL 267
Popular in World Literature: From 1700 AD to the Present
verified elite notetaker
Popular in English
verified elite notetaker
This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Gretta Michael on Saturday August 27, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to ENGL 267 at Purdue University taught by Dana Roders in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 20 views. For similar materials see World Literature: From 1700 AD to the Present in English at Purdue University.
Reviews for ENG 267: World Literature 1700 AD to Present, Week 1 Notes
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
Date Created: 08/27/16
ENG 267 Reading Notes—D: 91-113, 134-6 The Enlightenment in Europe and the Americas - Reason: o “the power by which man deduces one proposition from another, or proceeds from premises to consequences” (Dr. Johnson, Dictionary, 92) - Philosophy o What does it mean to be human? o “I think, therefore I am” (Descartes, 92) o the idea of individual identity is a fiction constructed by our minds to make discontinuous experiences and memories seem continuous and whole (Hume, 92) - The break from Deism—people no longer had to rely on priests to tell them what was right for them to do (92/93) - “Life could be understood as a struggle between rationality and emotion” (93) I. Society o Kings and queens no longer viewed as having God-given authority Rebellions broke out (94) The common people were given more power during the Enlightenment (94) Literacy rates grew (95) “New forms of commerce generated new wealth” (95) Slavery was questioned (95) Aphra Behn’s Oroonoko “the increasing value attached to individualism had implications for women as well as men” (95) Sor Juana Ines de la Cruz was an advocate for women’s rights (“education and a life of the mind”) (95) o Many writers “call attention to the deceptiveness and the possible misuses of social norms as well to their necessity” (96) Authors used “domestic situations to provide microcosms of a wider social universe” o Children were unimportant during this time—“for the thinkers of the Enlightenment, it was only in adulthood that people assumed social responsibility; and so it was only then that they could provide interesting substance for social commentary” (97) II. Humanity and Nature o Where do we fit in relation to the universe? (97) Pope’s An Essay of Man “understood creation as a great continuum, with man at the apex of the animal world” – referred to as the “Great Chain of Being” (97) Pope on the inner life of human beings: “Chaos of Thought and Passion, all confused” (97) Pope on man in general: “the glory, jest, and riddle of the world” (97) o We all suffer loss and face death (97) III. Convention and Authority o “Commitment to decorum helped preserve society’s standards” (97) o Conventions How to act/speak/live o “Underlying all of the conventions of this era was the classical assumption that literature existed to delight and instruct its readers” (98) stage comedy/tragedy, the early novel, satire in prose and verse, didactic poetry, the philosophical tale realism: writers often attempt to convey the literal feel of experience, the shape in which events actually occur in the world, the way people really talk (98) o Satire: criticism of vice and folly (99) What is Enlightenment? - “One of the central goals of an education in our own time is the development of critical thinking” (101) o stop and reflect on the arguments we hear; analyze them for gaps and errors; expose their unstated assumptions; and evaluate their evidence o we put our own intelligence to work to distinguish between persuasive and misleading claims o “Critical thinking is a legacy of the enlightenment” (101) the enlightened person is one who “dares to think for himself…” (Encyclopedie, 101) - Not only critical thinking, but independent thinking—simply acting and thinking for oneself instead of just blindly following others - Founder of modern feminism: Mary Wollstonecraft - Denunciation of Christianity by some as it was “fundamentally corrupt and unreasonable” (Voltaire, 101) o “Scientists claimed to take nothing on faith: they turned assertions into hypotheses, performing rigorous experiments that could be verified by others” (102) - The capacity to conquer nature and harness its forces for human ends o “the power of man over matter” (Benjamin Franklin, 102) - Could all human problems be solved?? Samuel Johnson British novelist, poet, essayist, biographer, and the sole author of the 40,000 definitions in his Dictionary of the English Language - To ENLIGHTEN v. a. [from light] 1. To illuminate; to supply with light. 2. To quicken in the faculty of vision. 3. To instruct; to furnish with increase of knowledge. 4. To cheer; to exhilarate; to gladden. 5. To illuminate with divine knowledge. (104) Immanuel Kant Responded to a magazine question: “What is Enlightenment?” - “Enlightenment is man’s release from his self-incurred tutelage. Tutelage is man’s inability to make use of his understanding without direction from another. … ‘Have courage to use your own reason!’ – that is the motto of enlightenment.” (105) René Descartes A French mathematician, scientist, and philosopher who wrote The Discourse on Method which asks how it is possible for human beings to know anything at all; says that the mind is separate from the body (110) - “I, that is to say, the soul by which I am what I am, is entirely distinct from the body” (112) Mary Wollstonecraft Wrote A Vindication of the Rights of Man and A Vindication of the Rights of Woman. In which she argued “marriage was no better than prostitution, and that education and unequal laws for women at the time subjected them to a condition similar to slavery” (133) - “The sensualist, indeed, has been the most dangerous of tyrants, and women have been duped by their lovers, as princes by their ministers, whilst dreaming that they reigned over them” (136)