ANEQ 305 Large Animal Functional Physiolgy
ANEQ 305 Large Animal Functional Physiolgy ANEQ305
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Andrew Everitt on Saturday August 27, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to ANEQ305 at Colorado State University taught by Dr. Hyungchul Han in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 72 views. For similar materials see Functional Large Animal Anatomy/Physiology in Animal Science at Colorado State University.
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Date Created: 08/27/16
ANEQ305 Functional Large Animal Physiology Dr. Hyungchul Han 1st week notes 8-24-16 Chapter 1 – Homeostasis and Integration: The Foundations of Physiology Physiology – the study of the normal mechanical, physical, and biochemical processes of animals and plants – what maintains homeostasis in a living organism? Characteristics of living Things - Organize themselves using energy and raw materials from their metabolism o Use them in metabolism - Maintain integrity in the face of disturbances – aka homeostasis o Sweating – the evaporation of water from skin cooling down skin temp o In winter when you pee, you shiver – the heat from the liquid, pee, leaves your body so your body has to warm back up o Produce CO2, mechanical energy, heat and water from food - The ability to reproduce Physiology is an integrative discipline - Related with anatomy, physics, chemistry, biochemistry, molecular biology, and genetics Physiology is a comparative discipline - Comparing physiological features in different organisms Basic Functions essential for survival of the cell - Self-organization - Self- regulation - Self-support and movement - Self-replication o Exceptions Nerve cells Skeletal cells Examples of specialized functions of some cells - Gland cells – secrete digestive enzymes - Neurons – generate and transmit electrical impulses o Brain transmits electrical impulses while you’re reading this o 78,000,000,000 cells in the brain – Brazilian scientist counted - Kidney cells – selectively retain needed substances while eliminating unwanted substances in the urine o Keep valuable stuff like sugar and sodium – get rid of urea - Muscle cells – produce movement Levels of organizations - Chemical level - Cellular level – smallest unit capable of carrying out the processes associated with life - Tissue level – group of cells with similar structures and functions - Organ level – two or more tissues organized to perform a particular function - Body/organ system level – collection of organs that interact to accomplish a common activity - Organism level 4 types of Tissue - Epithelial tissue o Exchange of materials Line body cavity and surface - Connective Tissue o Connects, supports and anchors different body parts Tendons, blood, lymph - Muscular Tissue o Contraction and generation of force – causes movement - Nervous tissue o Initiation and transmission of electrical impulses Excitatory and paralytic (relaxation) abilities Transmits signals Connected to muscles – causes contraction and movement 3 Basic Germ Layers - Ectoderm – outer – skin (includes neural tissue and various glands) - Mesoderm – middle – muscle, connective and plural tissues - Endoderm – inner – lungs, visceral organs, gut and liver Size and Scale among organisms - Organisms range in size from unicellular prokaryotes to large multicellular eukaryotes over a scale of 10^20 - Scaling = study of the effects of size on anatomy and physiology - All about volume to surface ratio – less surface area to volume means warmer and vice versa – larger surface area to volume means colder – o Bigger animal stays warmer easier than smaller animals o Small animals lose heat easier Hamsters have heart beat of 450 bpm to maintain heat o Slower metabolic rate = longer life Homeostasis: Basic Mechanisms and Enhancements - Claude Bernard documented the ability of mammals to maintain homeostasis - Walter B. Cannon coined the term “homeostasis” - Homeostasis is not a fixed/standard state – dynamic steady state - Majority of cells in a multicellular organism are not in direct contact with the external environment o The internal environment consists of the extracellular fluid Plasma Interstitial fluid - Cells pick up nutrients, oxygen, sugar, fatty acids, amino acids from extracellular fluid o Excrete waste product, CO2, into extracellular fluid Picked up by blood to be excreted Blood is one of the dirtiest things in the body – picks up all the waste and garbage - 60-65% of body is water in average adult o % depends on body fat percentage, age, other factors - Homeostasis is essential for proper cell function, and most cells, as a part of an organized system, contribute to homeostasis - Factors regulated by internal environment o Concentration of energy rich-molecules o Concentration of O2 and CO2 o Concentration of waste products o pH o Concentration of water, salt, and other electrolytes o Volume and pressure o Temperature o Social parameters - Animals vary in their homeostatic abilities o Regulators Sweat or shake to maintain constant temp – humans o Conformers Snakes – change body temp according to outside temp o Avoiders Move when temps change – geese - Negative Feedback o Main regulatory mechanism for homeostasis Occurs when a change in a controlled variable triggers a response that opposes the change Not always used – not used in pregnancy – if it was then the birth would never happen 8-26-16 Components of a negative feedback system - Sensor – measures the variable being regulated – ex. Senses hot or cold - Integrator – compared sensed information with a standard point – ex. Compares skin temp to standard body temp - Effector – responds to maintain equilibrium in system – ex. If too cold, causes us to shiver Some internal processes are not always homeostatic – ie not under negative feedback systems - Dormancy - Locomotion - Growth and development - Neural signaling - On-demand regulation (digestion) - Reset systems: change set point - Positive feedback systems Positive feedback systems - Output is continually enhanced so that the controlled variable continues to move in the direction of the initial change - Create rapid change - Ex – oxytocin release and uterine contractions during mammalian birth Disruptions in regulation can lead to illness and death - Pathophysiology – altered physiology of organisms associated with disease - Ex – diabetes, hypertension, congestive heart failure (positive feedback cycle that can cause death) Homeostasis and other regulation is hierarchically distributed - Regulation at the cellular level – water volume, pH, etc - Intrinsic controls o Regulation by a tissue or organ for its own benefit - Extrinsic controls o Regulatory mechanisms initiated outside an organ to alter its activity o Coordinated regulation of several organs toward a common goal Organ systems can be grouped according to their contributions to organism - Whole-body control systems – control all other systems o Nervous system – controls ALL movement, including heartbeat, digestion – fast acting o Endocrine system – hormones released from endocrine glands to effect body – only affect cells with correct receptors in the blood – slow acting - Support and movement systems o Skeletal system o Muscular system - Maintenance systems o Circulatory system – blood, heart o Immune system o Respiratory system - lungs o Excretory system – kidneys, urine o Digestive system – intestines o Integumentary system - Reproductive system CHAPTER 2 – CELLULAR AND MOLECULAR PHYSIOLOGY To be a cell they must have cell membrane Skeletal muscles and neurons cannot regrow Mitochondria – produce energy in cell Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum produce protein Red blood cell – no nucleus – carry oxygen Calcium, Potassium, Sodium *** Sarcoplasmic reticulum – stores calcium Categories of Organic Molecules - Carbohydrates o Made of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen o Monosaccharides (glucose, fructose, galactose) – single/simple sugar o Polysaccharides (glycogen, cellulose, chitin) - - Lipids o Made of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen – different arrangement o Fatty acids o Triglycerides o Phospholipids o Cholesterol - Proteins o Made of Carbon, hydrogen, oxygen and nitrogen o Amino acids o Highly complex 3-D structures o Peptides are small chains of amino acids - Nucleic Acids o Made of slightly different arrangement of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen o Composed of nucleotides o DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) o RNA (ribonucleic acid) Find protein, carbs, vitamins, minerals, waters, fats in our food Organic – any molecule that contains carbon Cellulose is the most abundant organic molecule on earth 9 calories per gram of fat 4 calories per protein 7 calories per alcohol Highlighted = pre or post lecture information Underlined = important info Bold= slide header Bold and underlined = chapter title
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