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JOUR 201, Chapter 1 Notes

by: runnergal

JOUR 201, Chapter 1 Notes JOUR 201

Marketplace > University of South Carolina > Journalism > JOUR 201 > JOUR 201 Chapter 1 Notes
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About this Document

These notes cover all of the information in Chapter 1 of the book.
Principles of Public Relations
Dr. Brooke McKeever
Class Notes
journalism, public relations




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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by runnergal on Saturday August 27, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to JOUR 201 at University of South Carolina taught by Dr. Brooke McKeever in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 47 views. For similar materials see Principles of Public Relations in Journalism at University of South Carolina.


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Date Created: 08/27/16
Chapter 1 Notes: The Nature of Public Relations  What is Public Relations? o Public relations needs to constantly adapt to the needs of society. o Public relations is part of large corporations and small businesses.  A Working Definition o Public relations: a leadership and management function that help achieve objectives, define philosophy, and facilitate change. People in this position also create consistency between goals and expectations and communicate with others to develop positive relationships.  Public Relations’ Practitioners’ Work o Their work includes research, advising, government affairs, fundraising, issue management, media relations, public affairs, community relations, employee relations, promotion, publishing, and marketing communications. o They develop win-win relationships between organizations and relevant, important people and organizations. o Social Marketing: a form of public relations that tries to change public feelings regarding a social cause.  Influencing Groups, Policies, and Issues o Communication is persuasive and purposive. o Communication influences public opinion. o PR practitioners use product publicity to introduce new products.  The Publics in Public Relations o Publics: groups that are important to PR professionals, like the media, government officials, employees, community leaders, and financial analysts. o PR professionals study social psychology and changes in public opinion.  Using Communication Skills Effectively o PR professionals must be able to write, design, and produce materials for all types of media. o They also need public speaking, group leadership, and event planning skills. o They also must identify key messages and choose good combinations of communication tools.  Distinguishing Public Relations From Related Fields o Corporate communication uses business and nonprofit PR expertise. o Public affairs uses government PR expertise. o PR is also known as corporate relations or marketing communication. o PR is not advertising; advertising is paid media, while PR is earned media. o PR is not marketing; marketing deals with consumers while PR deals with publics that may disagree with consumers. o PR is not journalism; PR professionals represent the organizations they write about, while journalists do not. Additionally, PR is more than just writing.  Public Relations Professionals at Work o 75% of PR professionals work for corporations, the government, or nonprofits, while 25% work in PR firms. o Large corporations often have PR vice-presidents and PR specialists. o PR people do: 1. Programming: analyzing problems and opportunities, defining goals, and creating and planning activities. 2. Relationships: gathering information from people to strengthen the organization’s ties to external groups. 3. Writing and Editing: writing speeches, press releases, product information, shareholder reports, etc. 4. Information: sharing information with appropriate media. 5. Production: professionals need background knowledge in layout, art, typography, and photography. 6. Special Events: planning special events to gain attention and acceptance for their organization. 7. Speaking: delivering and preparing speeches. 8. Research and evaluation: research issues, organizations, etc. and incorporate it into press releases, etc. o Good PR professionals have urgency, flexibility, and problem-solving skills.  The Management and Leadership Functions of Public Relations o Leadership: doing the right thing and making the right choices. o Management: doing things right. o PR professionals are communication experts and managers.  Advancing Socially Responsible Behavior o PR professionals should support actions that serve both the public interest and the organization’s interest. o Responsible behavior prevents strikes, boycotts, lawsuits, etc.  Public Relations Leaders and Decision Making o PR professionals can often sense when change is need because they interact with the public so often. o PR professionals help an organization understand what it should do and what society expects from it.  Crisis Communication o PR professionals use PR tools to strengthen an organization’s threatened reputation during a crisis. o Crises: events that attract public scrutiny through news coverage, like: 1. Acts of God: natural disasters 2. Mechanicals problems: infrastructure failures 3. Human error: employee mistakes 4. Management decisions and indecisions: when senior management hides a problem or deals incorrectly with a problem o Communication between organizations and key stakeholders help avoid crises.  Social Media o Internet, email, and social media have influenced how PR works. o Internet allows people to get information themselves, rather than waiting for organizations or media to give them information. o Internet allows two-way communication between 1) organizations and consumers and 2) consumers and other consumers.  Public Relations and Global Markets o PR agencies are often owned by ad agencies which are often owned by conglomerates; this allowed massive PR campaigns to be launched at any time. o Globalization requires corporations to gain international market share. o PR professionals now need global strategies and collaboration with foreign partners. Organizations must enhance their reputations while considering other cultures. o Multinational PR: represent corporations at home, bridge the gap between management and foreign operations, and conduct PR in host countries.  The Changing Institution of Public Relations o Globalization puts pressure on short-term profits and short planning cycles. o It is hard to understand the philosophy behind an organization on their website because many different departments contribute to the website.  Rethinking Internal Communication o Using communication to increase employee productivity increase the organization’s profits. o PR professionals often do communication audits, then clean up any confusion, incorporate new ideas more quickly, and become more responsive to organization environmental changes.  Changing Organizational Structures and Settings o Some PR functions have been outsourced to different department, i.e. employee work reports are written by human resources. o Many PR professionals are now specialized independent contractors. o PR is often incorporated into advertising agencies with a focus on marketing. o Organizations use big PR firms for overall strategy and local PR firms for community strategy. o In-house PR: media relations, managing crises, and talking with management about the organization’s long-term reputation. o Outsourced PR: routine media relations, product publicity, events, and community relations.  The Scope of the Public Relations Industry o 33% of PR professionals work for agencies. o 33% of PR professionals work for corporations. o 33% of PR professionals work for the government, trade associations, health care, or charitable organizations.  Education o 65% of PR professionals have bachelor’s degrees with 50% of them in PR o 33% have master’s degrees with 50% of them in PR, journalism, etc. o 24% have passed PRSA national accreditation exams.  Salaries o You make hella $$$ o 2-5 years: $35,000-$50,000 o 5-10 years: $55,000-$85,000 o 10+ years: $125,000-$175,000 o Average practitioner: $69,000 with $10,000 bonus o Average consultant: $110,000 with $20,000 bonus


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