Chapter 2 Vocabulary- Week 1
Chapter 2 Vocabulary- Week 1 Psych 101
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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Phoebe Notetaker on Saturday August 27, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Psych 101 at University of South Carolina taught by levens in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 6 views. For similar materials see General Psychology in Social Science at University of South Carolina.
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Date Created: 08/27/16
Chapter 2 Vocabulary Prefrontal lobotomy Surgical procedure that severs fibers connecting the frontal lobes of the brain from the underlying thalamus Heuristic mental shortcut or rule of thumb that helps us to streamline our thinking and make sense of the world Naturalistic observation watching behavior in realworld settings without trying the manipulate the situation External validity extents to which we can generalize finding to realworld settings Internal validity extent to which we can draw causeandeffect inferences from a study Case study research design that examines one person or a small number of people in depth, often over an extended time period Existence proof demonstration that a given psychological phenomenon can occur Random selection procedure that ensures every person in a population has an equal chance of being chose to participate Reliability consistency of measurement Validity extent to which a measure assesses what it purports to measure Response set tendency of research participants to distort their responses to questionnaire items Correlational design research design that examines the extent to which two variables are associated Scatterplot grouping of points on a twodimensional graph in which each dot represents a single person’s data Illusory correlation perception of a statistical association between two variables where none exists Experiment research design characterized by random assignment of participants to conditions and manipulation of an independent variable Random assignment randomly sorting participants into two groups Experimental group in an experiment, the group of participants that receives the manipulation Control group in an experiment, the group of participants that doesn’t receive the manipulation Independent variable variable that an experimenter manipulates Dependent variable variable than an experimenter measures to see whether the manipulation has an effect Operational definition a working definition of what a researcher is measuring Placebo effect improvement resulting from the mere expectation of improvement Blind unaware of whether one is in the experimental or control group Experimenter expectancy effect phenomenon in which researcher’s hypotheses lead them to unintentionally bias the outcome of a study Double blind when neither researchers nor participants are aware of who’s in the experimental or control group Demand characteristics cues that participants pick up from a study that allow them to generate guesses regarding the researcher’s hypotheses Informed consent informing research participants of what is involved in a study before asking them to participate Statistics application of mathematics to describing and analyzing data Descriptive statistics numerical characteristics that describe data Central tendency measure of the “central” scores in a data set, or where the group tends to cluster Mean average; a measure of central tendency Median middle score in a data set; a measure of central tendency Mode most frequent score in a data set; a measure of central tendency Variability measure of how loosely or tightly bunched scores are Range difference between the highest and lowest scores; a measure of variability Standard deviation measure of variability that takes into account how far each data point is from the mean Inferential statistics mathematical methods that allow us to determine whether we can generalize findings from our sample to the full population
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