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Chapter 2 Vocabulary- Week 1

by: Phoebe Notetaker

Chapter 2 Vocabulary- Week 1 Psych 101

Phoebe Notetaker

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About this Document

These notes are all the vocabulary in the textbook for chapter 2
General Psychology
Class Notes
Psychology, psych101, Intro to Psychology
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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Phoebe Notetaker on Saturday August 27, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Psych 101 at University of South Carolina taught by levens in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 6 views. For similar materials see General Psychology in Social Science at University of South Carolina.


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Date Created: 08/27/16
Chapter 2 Vocabulary  Prefrontal lobotomy­ Surgical procedure that severs fibers connecting the frontal lobes of  the brain from the underlying thalamus  Heuristic­ mental shortcut or rule of thumb that helps us to streamline our thinking and  make sense of the world  Naturalistic observation­ watching behavior in real­world settings without trying the  manipulate the situation  External validity­ extents to which we can generalize finding to real­world settings  Internal validity­ extent to which we can draw cause­and­effect inferences from a study  Case study­ research design that examines one person or a small number of people in  depth, often over an extended time period  Existence proof­ demonstration that a given psychological phenomenon can occur  Random selection­ procedure that ensures every person in a population has an equal  chance of being chose to participate  Reliability­ consistency of measurement  Validity­ extent to which a measure assesses what it purports to measure  Response set­ tendency of research participants to distort their responses to questionnaire  items  Correlational design­ research design that examines the extent to which two variables are  associated  Scatterplot­ grouping of points on a two­dimensional graph in which each dot represents  a single person’s data  Illusory correlation­ perception of a statistical association between two variables where  none exists  Experiment­ research design characterized by random assignment of participants to  conditions and manipulation of an independent variable  Random assignment­ randomly sorting participants into two groups  Experimental group­ in an experiment, the group of participants that receives the  manipulation  Control group­ in an experiment, the group of participants that doesn’t receive the  manipulation  Independent variable­ variable that an experimenter manipulates  Dependent variable­ variable than an experimenter measures to see whether the  manipulation has an effect  Operational definition­ a working definition of what a researcher is measuring  Placebo effect­ improvement resulting from the mere expectation of improvement  Blind­ unaware of whether one is in the experimental or control group  Experimenter expectancy effect­ phenomenon in which researcher’s hypotheses lead  them to unintentionally bias the outcome of a study  Double blind­ when neither researchers nor participants are aware of who’s in the  experimental or control group  Demand characteristics­ cues that participants pick up from a study that allow them to  generate guesses regarding the researcher’s hypotheses  Informed consent­ informing research participants of what is involved in a study before  asking them to participate  Statistics­ application of mathematics to describing and analyzing data  Descriptive statistics­ numerical characteristics that describe data  Central tendency­ measure of the “central” scores in a data set, or where the group tends  to cluster  Mean­ average; a measure of central tendency  Median­ middle score in a data set; a measure of central tendency  Mode­ most frequent score in a data set; a measure of central tendency  Variability­ measure of how loosely or tightly bunched scores are  Range­ difference between the highest and lowest scores; a measure of variability  Standard deviation­ measure of variability that takes into account how far each data point  is from the mean  Inferential statistics­ mathematical methods that allow us to determine whether we can  generalize findings from our sample to the full population


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