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BME201 Week 1 Lecture Notes

by: Mahera Husain

BME201 Week 1 Lecture Notes BME 201

Marketplace > Purdue University > BME > BME 201 > BME201 Week 1 Lecture Notes
Mahera Husain
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About this Document

These are extensive notes on the material covered in the first two lectures in this class. (Lecture 1-1 and Lecture 1-2).
Dr. Sherry Harbin
Class Notes
BME, biomedical, Engineering, cellbiology, prokaryotes, eukaryotes, buffers, titrationcurves




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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Mahera Husain on Saturday August 27, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BME 201 at Purdue University taught by Dr. Sherry Harbin in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 22 views. For similar materials see Biomechanics in BME at Purdue University.


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Date Created: 08/27/16
BME 201: Lecture 1-1 Wednesday, August 24, 2016 9:03 PM BME 201:Lecture 1.1 Biomolecules - Nucleic acids o Nucleic acid monomers o DNA genetic code - proteins, o Amino acids o Transport, storage, defense, catalysis - Carbohydrates o sugars o Energy production and storage function - Lipids o Fatty acids – fundamental building blocks Hydrolysis of ester = alcohol and carboxylic acid Definitions-size scale -Monomers-can be differentiated by linkages/functional groups -Biomolecules= fundamental building blocks and drivers of cellular structure and function -Cells- fundamental units of living organisms Classification of Cells - Prokaryotic= bacteria, simple structures, o Prokaryoticorganisms are unicellular, may form colonies of individual cells - Eukaryotic= much more complex,multicellular or unicellular format, larger - Distinguishing features -Prokaryotic organism -Eukaryotic organism -0.2-2.0 um in diameter -10-100um diameter -Single circular chromosome -Multiple linear chromosomes -No membrane bound nucleus -DNA (genetic material) contained within nucleus -Cytoplasmbut no specialized organelles -Specialized organelles in cytoplasm - KNOW: Eukaryotic cellular features and organelles – structure and function All living organisms can harness energy and turn into biological work Bioenergeticsand Thermodynamics - Fundamental Laws of Thermo 1. Energy is conserved a. deltaE_universe= 0 b. energy of system is a State Function 2. Enthalpy, H 2. Enthalpy, H a. deltaH = deltaE + P*deltaV b. for biological processes, P and V are nearly always constant c. biological processes  deltaH = deltaE i. heat transferred between system and surroundings = energy change in system d. exothermic(system gives off heat to surroundings) deltaH<0 i. forming bonds e. endothermic(heat transferred from surroundings to system)deltaH>0 i. breaking bonds 3. Second Law = Entropy (S) –increase disorder a. S_system + S_surroundings = S_universe and S_universe tends to want to increase for all processes b. deltaG = free energy change i. deltaG = deltaH – T*deltaS ii. at equilibrium, deltaG = 0 and deltaH = T*deltaS iii. negative deltaG = exergonic = spontaneous iv. positive deltaG = endergonic = non-spontaneous - for biological systems (P and V are constant)… o DeltaG represents the maximum possible work resulting from reaction o deltaG only determinesdirection in which process will occur, no info on reaction rate o Reaction Kinetics  A + B C + D  K_eq = [C][D]/[A][B] o – chem rxns proceed spontaneouslyuntil equilibrium is reached—product formation= product conversionto reactants o – K_eq = tendancy of chem rxn to go to equilibrium BME 201: Lecture 1-2 Wednesday, August 24, 2016 7:43 PM - Water is essential to biomoleculesand living organisms ○ Most abundant in human body (70% of mass) ○ Biochemicalreactions and transport uses water ○ Ionization properties participate in biochemical rxns ○ Functions to buffer pH in body - Structure ○ H2O --> covalent bond ○ Geometry--> tetrahedral ○ 2 orbitals have non-bonding e- pairs ○ Other two share electron pairs with Oxygen ○ Polar molecule ○ Oxygen atom are partially negative , H atoms are partially positive ○ ○ OH serves as weakly acidic donor group ○ Each molecule can form 4 H-bonds with other water molecules - Bond energies ○ Covalent bonds have high bond energy (300-500kJ mol^-1)  They share electrons ○ Non covalent bond energies are much smaller  Ionic interaction  Van der waals forces (H-bond, london dispersion forces, dipole dipole interactions) - Molecular Solubility in Water ○ Solubility requires that the solvent (water)interactswith the solute more strongly than the solute particles interact with each other ○ Water is polar==makesit a n excellent solvent for polar and ionic materials and a poor solvent for non-polar substances ○ Hydrophobic (water fearing) (non-polar)  Water molecules form cage around non-polar molecules  Nonpolar solutes aggregate in water □ Maximizes entropy --number of water molecules required to hydrate the aggregated solutes is less than the number of water molecules required to hydrate disperse solute molecules □ This higher entropy accounts for spontaneous aggregation of nonpolar solutes in water in water □ Minimizes surface area ○ Hydrophilic (Water loving) (polar, ionic) ○ Amphiphiles : both hydrophobic and hydrophilic  Fatty acids □ Nonpolar tails and polar heads □ Form Micelles and bilayers □ - Colligative properties of water ○ Vapor Pressure ○ Boiling Point ○ Melting Point, Freezing Point ○ OsmoticPressure ○ Effect of solute concentrationon colligativeprop of water==independentof chem properties of solute  Only depends on NUMBER of solute particles (molecules or ions) in given amt water ○ OsmoticPressure = Van't hoff equation ○ When separated by semipermiable membrane , Water molecules will diffuse from region of high concentration to low concentration ==by osmosis through semipermiable membrane ○ Osmoticpressure = Force necessary to return solution to initial state  i=vant hoff factor □ Measure of the extent to which solute dissociates into two or more ionic species  c=molar concentrationof solute  R=gas constant  T=absolute temp ○ Dialysis: Diffusion of solutes (commonlab technique)  Small solutes can exchange freely through pores of dialysis membrane until equilibrium is reached  Larger moleculesstay within dialysis membrane  Larger moleculesstay within dialysis membrane  Useful for molecular separation as well as to facilitate exchange of solvents  Kidney failure and dialysis  Cell membranes more permiable to water than to other molecucles - Ionization of water  pH used to compare solutions (acidic pH<7, basic pH>7, neutral pH=7)  pH = -log[H+]  pH of CommonSubstances can be determined by dyes, pH strips, and pH probes - Bronsted-Lowrydef for acids and bases ○ Acid = substance that can donate proton ○ Base = substance that can accept proton - Acid-Base rxn - Henderson-Hasselbalch Equation - for buffers  Find Ka  Then calculate pH NOTE: pH = pK_a when concentration of acid [HA] = conjugate base [A-] - Polyproticacids: more complicatedtitration curves


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