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Research Methods in Psychology- Week 1

by: Phoebe Notetaker

Research Methods in Psychology- Week 1 Psych 101

Marketplace > University of South Carolina > Social Science > Psych 101 > Research Methods in Psychology Week 1
Phoebe Notetaker

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About this Document

These notes cover the different research methods in psychology: case studies, surveys, naturalistic observations, correlations, and experiments
General Psychology
Class Notes
Psychology, psych101, Intro to Psychology
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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Phoebe Notetaker on Saturday August 27, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Psych 101 at University of South Carolina taught by levens in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 6 views. For similar materials see General Psychology in Social Science at University of South Carolina.

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Date Created: 08/27/16
Research Methods in Psychology ­The Scientific Method  Theory­ explanation that organizes and predicts observations  Hypothesis­ specific, testable prediction   Operational definitions­ the procedures used in the research  Replication­ repeating a study to see if the original findings generalize to other  participants and situations ­Research Strategies  Descriptive (describes something, but does not say why o Case study o Survey o Naturalistic observation  Correlation­ statistic used for descriptive or pseudo­experimental studies  Experimentation ­Case Study  One or a few individuals is studies in depth in the hope of revealing universal principles  Examples: study of a serious brain injury (H.M.), Freud’s theory of personality, Piaget  and child development  Limitations: any given individual can be atypical; therefore, it becomes easy to make  false conclusions ­Survey  Must use a representative, random sample  Examples: dating practices, political polls, drug surveys  Limitations: sampling errors; response rate  The best basis for generalizing is not from the exceptional cases at the extremes, but from a representative sample of cases ­Naturalistic Observation  Observing and recording behavior in naturally occurring situations without direct  intervention with subjects  Examples: Jane Goodall and chimps, child interactions at playgrounds, pace of life  (Levine and Norenzayan 1999)  Limitations: does not explain behavior ­Correlation  A statistical measure of the extent to which two factors predict each other  Examples: Intelligence and achievement, extraversion and risk­taking  Reasons correlation is used: o When experimentation is unethical o When experimentation is impossible or too difficult o When you’re looking at traits that can’t be controlled  Limitation: correlation does not mean causation ­Experimentation  An investigator manipulates one or more factors (independent variables) to observe the  effect on some behavior or mental process (the dependent variable)  Experimental condition­ exposes participants to the experimental treatment  Random assignment  Independent variable (IV)­ the experimental factor that is manipulated; the variable  whose effect is being studied  Dependent variable (DV)­ the experimental factor that is being measured; the variable  that may change in response to the manipulations of the IVs  Be careful of extraneous variables!


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