Research Methods in Psychology- Week 1
Research Methods in Psychology- Week 1 Psych 101
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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Phoebe Notetaker on Saturday August 27, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Psych 101 at University of South Carolina taught by levens in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 6 views. For similar materials see General Psychology in Social Science at University of South Carolina.
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Date Created: 08/27/16
Research Methods in Psychology The Scientific Method Theory explanation that organizes and predicts observations Hypothesis specific, testable prediction Operational definitions the procedures used in the research Replication repeating a study to see if the original findings generalize to other participants and situations Research Strategies Descriptive (describes something, but does not say why o Case study o Survey o Naturalistic observation Correlation statistic used for descriptive or pseudoexperimental studies Experimentation Case Study One or a few individuals is studies in depth in the hope of revealing universal principles Examples: study of a serious brain injury (H.M.), Freud’s theory of personality, Piaget and child development Limitations: any given individual can be atypical; therefore, it becomes easy to make false conclusions Survey Must use a representative, random sample Examples: dating practices, political polls, drug surveys Limitations: sampling errors; response rate The best basis for generalizing is not from the exceptional cases at the extremes, but from a representative sample of cases Naturalistic Observation Observing and recording behavior in naturally occurring situations without direct intervention with subjects Examples: Jane Goodall and chimps, child interactions at playgrounds, pace of life (Levine and Norenzayan 1999) Limitations: does not explain behavior Correlation A statistical measure of the extent to which two factors predict each other Examples: Intelligence and achievement, extraversion and risktaking Reasons correlation is used: o When experimentation is unethical o When experimentation is impossible or too difficult o When you’re looking at traits that can’t be controlled Limitation: correlation does not mean causation Experimentation An investigator manipulates one or more factors (independent variables) to observe the effect on some behavior or mental process (the dependent variable) Experimental condition exposes participants to the experimental treatment Random assignment Independent variable (IV) the experimental factor that is manipulated; the variable whose effect is being studied Dependent variable (DV) the experimental factor that is being measured; the variable that may change in response to the manipulations of the IVs Be careful of extraneous variables!