BIology I - 2.1-2.3 - week 1 day 2 (Aug 25)
BIology I - 2.1-2.3 - week 1 day 2 (Aug 25) BSC 2010
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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Marla Notetaker on Saturday August 27, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BSC 2010 at University of South Florida taught by Dr. Eric M. Sikorski in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 121 views. For similar materials see Biology I Cellular Processes in Biology at University of South Florida.
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Date Created: 08/27/16
Chapter 2 USF Biology I – A Chemical Context of Life Yellow: Vocabulary GREE: Key concepts Concept 2.1 Matter: everything with Mass occupying space I. Elements and Compounds Element: smallest form of matter which cannot be broken down by chemical means Compound: 2 or more different elements together II. Elements of Life a. Essential elements Oxygen – 65% Carbon – 18.5 % 96.3% of Human Body Hydrogen – 9.5% Nitrogen – 3.3% b. Trace elements Only needed in small quantities Used for various enzymes Concept 2.2 Atom: smallest unit of matter which holds the same properties a. Subatomic particles: Protons (+), neutrons (0), and electrons () b. Atomic # and atomic mass # of Protons Protons + neutrons + electrons Dalton: unit of weight of the particles * You HAVE to have protons = electrons to stay neutral* c. Isotopes Different amount of NEUTRONS Some are very radioactive d. Energy Levels of Electrons Energy: Capacity to cause change Potential Energy: energy because of its location in structure *Radioactivity depends on the valence electrons (outter shell)* *Noble gases are INERT – don’t react* Concept 2.3 Chemical bonds: interactions causing attraction b/t atoms a. Covalent Bond: SHARING a pair of electrons – b/t 2 nonmetals *Electronegativity: how much are electrons attracted to the atom* Polarity: because one atom has more protons the electrons come around its nucleus more, resulting in polarity *Bonds share 2 electrons – a pair* b. Ionic Bond: TRANSFER of electrons – b/t a metal and a nonmetal *Covalent Bonds require ENERGY to break – stronger than ionic* Negative () ion – Anion Positive (+) ion – CATion c. Weak Chemical Bonds Hydrogen Bond NON covalent Only 5% of covalent bond’s strength *By increasing HYDROGEN BONDING you can change the state (from solid to liquid to gas or vise versa)* Van der Waals: when atoms are sharing electrons at some point most of them end in 1 atom, creating polarity and casing attraction between positive and negative sides of other atoms. *This is the WEAKEST bond* Hydrophobic: cannot be in hydrophilic… polar CANNOT be w/ nonpolar *NOT exactly that the hydrophobic are attracted to each other… MORE like they try to get away from the hydrophilic and end up sticking to each hydrophobic* d. Shape and Function If the shape doesn’t fit it won’t work Mimics: this is a molecule that imitates the shape of the original molecule
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