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Life 102 - Week 01 Notes

by: AveryLemler

Life 102 - Week 01 Notes Life 102

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These notes are a combination of both lecture notes and book notes to make it easy to study what is important for the exam.
Attributes of Living Systems
Dr. Erik Arthun
Class Notes
Biology, life, Colorado, state, University, Attributes of Living Systems




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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by AveryLemler on Saturday August 27, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Life 102 at Colorado State University taught by Dr. Erik Arthun in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 162 views. For similar materials see Attributes of Living Systems in Life Sciences at Colorado State University.


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Date Created: 08/27/16
LIFE 102 - CSU Week 01 Notes StudySoup - Avery Chapter 2 2.1: Matter consists of chemical elements in pure form and in combinations called compounds • Matter: anything that takes up space and has mass Element: a substance that cannot e broken down to other substances by chemical • reactions • 92 recognized elements occurring in nature • 96% of all living matter is composed of carbon (C), oxygen (O), hydrogen (H), or nitrogen (N) • Trick to Remember: HONC (like a car horn) • Compound: a substance consisting of two or more different elements combined in a fixed ratio that can be decomposed through a chemical process Ex: Table salt is a compound of Sodium and Chlorine (NaCl) • • Ex: Water is a compound of Hydrogen and Oxygen • Essential Elements: elements that an organism needs to live a healthy life and reproduce About 20-25% of all elements are essential elements • • Trace Elements: elements that are required by an organism in only minute quantities • Ex: Iron (Fe) is required by all forms of life 2.2: An element’s properties depend on the structure of its atoms • Atom: the smallest unit of matter that still retains the properties of an element • Subatomic Particle: parts that make up an atom Subatomic particles do not have the properties of an element • • Proton: a subatomic particle with one unit of positive charge • Neutron: a subatomic particle that is electrically neutral • Electron: a subatomic particle with one unit of negative charge Atomic Nucleus: a dense core that protons and neutrons are packed tightly into at • the center of an atom LIFE 102 - CSU Week 01 Notes StudySoup - Avery • Electron Cloud: rapidly moving electrons around a nucleus that form a “cloud” of negative charge • Dalton: a unit of measurement for molecules, atoms, and subatomic particles • Equivalent to the atomic mass unit or amu • Atomic Number: the number of protons in an element • Written as a subscript to the left of the symbol for the element • Also shows the number of electrons in an electronically neutral element • Ex: Helium = He2because there are 2 protons • Mass Number: the sum of protons plus neutrons in the nucleus of an atom • Written as a superscript to the left of an element’s symbol • Ex: Helium = He because there are 2 protons and 2 neutrons • Atomic Mass: an approximation of the total mass of an atom • Isotope: an atom of a certain element that has a different number of neutrons than other atoms of the same element, making it a different mass • Radioactive Isotope: an isotope in which the nucleus decays spontaneously, giving off particles and energy • Often used as diagnostic tools in medicine • Injected into the body and used as tracers to track atoms during metabolism • Half-Life: the time it takes for 50% of the parent isotope to decay • Radiometric Dating: a process that scientists use to measure the ratio of different isotopes and calculate how many half-lives have passed since an organism was fossilized or a rock was formed • Used to determine the age of moon rocks and Earth • Energy: the capacity to cause change • Potential Energy: the energy that matter possesses because of its location or structure • Ex: water in a reservoir on a hill has potential energy because of its altitude • The more distance between an electron and the nucleus, the greater the potential energy LIFE 102 - CSU Week 01 Notes StudySoup - Avery • Electron Shells: the average distance of electrons from the nucleus • First shell is closest to the nucleus and electrons in this shell have the lowest potential energy • In the periodic table, each period increases one shell as you go down from the top • Valence Electrons: the number of electrons in the outermost shell • In the periodic table, each group increases one valence electron as you go from left to right • Noble gases have eight valence electrons, making them extremely stable and non-reactive • Valence Shell: the outermost shell • The number of electrons in the valence shell determines an atom’s chemical behavior • It strives to fill its valence shell (with 8 electrons) by donating or accepting an electron from another atom • Ex: NaCl combines when Na gives one electron to Cl to create a stable substance • Orbital: the three-dimensional space where an electron is usually found around a nucleus • Each electron shell has electrons at a certain energy level, distributed among a specific number of orbitals 2.3: The formation and function of molecules depend on chemical bonding between atoms • Chemical Bonds: attractions that allow atoms to share or transfer valence electrons • Strongest are covalent bonds and ionic bonds • Molecule: two or more atoms help together by covalent bonds • Single Bond: a pair of shared electrons • Valence: the bonding capacity of an atom • Usually equal to the number of unpaired electrons required to complete the atom’s outermost (valence) shell LIFE 102 - CSU Week 01 Notes StudySoup - Avery • Electronegativity: the attraction of a particular atom for the electrons of a covalent bond • Covalent Bonds: the sharing of a pair of valence electrons by two atoms • Nonpolar Covalent Bond: a covalent bond between two atoms of the same element where the electrons are shared equally because the two atoms have the same electronegativity • Like a game of tug-of-war is at a standoff • Polar Covalent Bond: a bond in which electrons are not shared equally because one atom is more electronegative than the other • Ions: atoms or molecules that do not have a neutral charge • Cation: a positively charged ion • Anion: a negatively charged ion • Trick to Remember: ANger is a NEGATIVE emotion - ANions are NEGATIVE • Ionic Bond: a bond between a cation and anion because of their opposite charges • Ionic Compounds (Salts): compounds formed by ionic bonds • Hydrogen Bond: the attraction between a hydrogen atom and an electronegative atom • Van der Waals Interactions: electrons accumulating by chance in one part of a molecule in a molecule with non polar covalent bonds • Results in ever-changing regions of positive and negative charge, instead of distinct positive and negative regions 2.4: Chemical reactions make and break chemical bonds • Chemical Reactions: the making and breaking of chemical bonds leading to changes in the composition of matter • Ex: the reaction between hydrogen and oxygen molecules that forms water • Reactants: the starting materials in a chemical reaction • Products: the end materials in a chemical reaction • Chemical Equilibrium: a state in which the reactants and products have stabilized and will not change concentrations


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