Art History 2, Week 1 & 2 Notes
Art History 2, Week 1 & 2 Notes ARTS 1720
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Liv Taylor on Saturday August 27, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to ARTS 1720 at Auburn University taught by Dr. Katherine Arpen in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 44 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Art History 2 in Arts at Auburn University.
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Date Created: 08/27/16
August 16-26, 2016 (Week 1 & 2) Dr. Katherine Arpen ARTS 1720 Art Analysis Terms Subject: What is being shown? - Basic and specialized levels Form: How is it shown? - Medium, scale, composition, use of line, color, lighting, depiction of space, etc. Function: Why was it made? - Religious? Honor an individual? Cultural? History? Context: What outside factors might have influenced its production? - Local or patron’s desires? Trends? Medium: The object type and the materials used - What does the particular medium allow artists to achieve? Scale: Size of the object in relation to viewer Represented scale: Size of represented element in relation to other elements within the work Color: What does the color scheme convey? Contour line: Defines the edge of three-dimensional object (real or represented) Volume: Space contained within a three-dimensional form (real or represented) Modeling: Illusion of three-dimensionality through light and shadow Lighting: Does it create any areas of visual interest? Illusionistic space: Representation of a three-dimensional scene in two dimensions Composition: Arrangement of forms Naturalism: Seeks to imitate the natural world Idealism: Strives for a culturally determined idea of perfection Realism: Incredible heightened naturalism Stylized: Emphasis on decorative appeal of form Romanesque Period - Term “Romanesque” coined in the 19 century because it resembled ancient Rome (Arch of Constantine, Cathedral of Saint Lazare) - Features: - Corinthian columns and rounded arches - Embellished surfaces with sculptures - Relief sculpture: Sculpture that projects from a supporting back - “Romanesque” became less of a stylistic term and more of a historical term - Predominately Christian - Key Christian beliefs: 1 - Concept of the Trinity: God exists as three entities united as one (Father, Son, and Holy Spirit) - Jesus was born through miraculous conception to the Virgin Mary - Was resurrected and ascended into heaven - Those who follow His teachings will also ascend into heaven when Jesus returns on Judgment Day - Church building increased because of the wave of relief when the world didn’t end in 1000 and created a sense of community - Major Christian pilgrimage destinations were Jerusalem, Old St. Peter’s, Cathedral of Santiago de Compostela, etc. - The process of pilgrimages was hard and long journeys on foot where you exposed yourself to the elements, but where you returned a better person - Also a demonstration of their faith for eternal life and in order to spread deeper in their own faith, search for proof, healing remedies, atonement for sins, etc. - Christian pilgrimages affect the Romanesque period by relics and reliquaries - Relics: Objects or remnants that have come in contact with or come from a holy figure - Reliquaries: Vessel for relics - You receive relics by petitioning to the Pope, stealing it (like the reliquary of St. Foy) or simply making it up - Relics were very beneficial for churches to have because it attracted pilgrims and made them more legitimate due to the spiritual importance - Gold and jewels on the reliquary corresponds with what’s inside the vessel - Elaborate to reflect spiritual importance and to get more visitors to come to the church - Arm reliquaries were a way for he saint to directly interact with the pilgrim or congregation (The Saints’ Touch) Church Exterior Architecture - There was a great deal of attention paid to doorways (portals) - Intentionally, the door itself was to be decorated, but as time went on, the doors themselves were very plain while the area that surrounded the doors was elaborate (consistent format throughout Romanesque period) - Archivolt: arched bands on the top frame, elaborately decorated - Voussoirs: separate sections within the archivolt - Tympanum: the half circle right above the door, the most elaborately decorated potion - Lintel: the beam between the tympanum and the doors themselves 2 - Trumeau: the beam that splits the door (functional need but also the canvas for elaborate relief sculptures - Doorjambs: the outmost sides of the door - All of these elements were initially color painted, not bare like they are today - Typical tympanum format: A large Jesus with open arms in the center and horizontal bands that push out from that clear center - Hierarchy of scale means that size equals importance and was utilized strongly with the tympanum format - Analysis of the Last Judgment on the Cathedral of Saint Lazare: - Jesus (central) judging the blessed and the damned - Angels and demons weighing souls on the left side of Jesus - Saint Peter helping people get into heaven and angels raising them up on the right side of Jesus - Below, there are mortals waiting to be weighed and a small inscription in Latin, even though it is unnecessary because the audience at the time was extremely illiterate, emphasizing the importance of this “storytelling” type of imagery - There are two joyful figures on the bottom with bags with the emblems of the Christian pilgrims on them, conveying that Christian pilgrims have nothing to fear on Judgment Day - This tympanum is supposed to convey the idea that by Judgment Day, it’s already too late, so be a good Christian now, not later - Another prominent tympanum is the Portico of Glory at the Cathedral of Santiago de Compostela consisting of Jesus in the center, Old Testament prophets on the right and New Testament apostles on the left. Jesus is surrounded by the Four Evangelists (Matthew symbolized with a winged man, Mark with a winged lion, Luke with a winged ox or cow and John with an eagle) - There are often three portals to represent the Holy Trinity Church Interior Architecture - The church adopted the layout of the secular Roman basilica, more commonly referred to as the “Basilica plan” as it’s interior layout is in the shape of a cross - There is a network of spaces so that the pilgrims can look at the relics even with a service taking place - Earlier Romanesque style consisted of visible wooden beams with a peaked ceiling until the Santiago de Compostela had rounded stone ceilings (acoustical purposes) - Central nave aisle: runs from the door to the altar, primary aisle for worship and processionals - Side aisles: runs parallel to the nave, used to separate pilgrims from the congregation 3 - Transept: additional space and entrances, makes the “cross” of the basilica plan - Transept aisles: secondary pathways on the outside of the transept - Crossing: where the nave and transept intersects - Choir & Apse: the choir is between the crossing and end of the church and the apse is a semicircle behind the choir - Chapels & Ambulatory: the chapels are where the relics are and the ambulatory is behind the altar - Barrel vault: a long series of “funnel” vaults which were a central characteristic of the Romanesque period - Transverse arches: arches that run underneath the vault - Bay: interior unit of measurement (the space between two arches = one bay) and split up the long spaces (nave, side aisles) into consistent units - The nave was two stories: the first being the ground floor holding the nave arcade (series of arches supported by columns) and the upper level being the gallery - This was a very planned and systematic approach to architecture showing austere and restraint - Pier buttresses: runs up exterior wall to redirect the outward pressure and support the structure - Quadrant vaults: vaulting of the second-story gallery, which also redirects the outward pressure that the barrel vaults create - Groin vaults: located at the side aisles and helps redirect weight to the pier buttresses Approaches to Monastic Life and Architecture - Cluniac (Abbey of Cluny) consists of a larger yet more disorganized and spread out layout because of additions and because it was a pilgrimage location - Cistercian (Abbey of Fontenay) consists of orderly, straight lines and a central concentration of buildings - They both consist of a church, dormitories, a dining hall and kitchen, chapter houses and a cloister (a private courtyard where monks could read or do devotions and meditate in peace) - Cluny features: - Cluny was a Benedictine monastery, which outlines instructions for monastic life with an emphasis on prayer - It was so large and elaborate because it was a pilgrimage location, overall practicality and a reflection of spiritual importance - Consisted of Corinthian columns with historiated capitals decorated with figures, animals and vegetation to convey ideas or narratives - These columns were mostly located in the centrality of the church or in the cloisters for focus and reflection purposes 4 - Interested in grand appearances because it could be a direct inspiration for prayer and to keep the monks focused on their prayers, but more cynically, also to flaunt the churches wealth - The idea that the Divine is beautiful and grand and a gift from God and that God is glorified through these grand structures - Fontenay (Cistercian) features: - Saw spending money on grand buildings as a waste - Stressed humility and simplicity and that what matters is the heart of a servant, not the grandness of what things look like - Yet, they also didn’t need to bring anything or anyone else in (not a pilgrimage) - Saint Climent in Catalonia, Spain was a very small church that was only used by a very small community - It was very small and very simple and not much to look like on the outside, but on the inside it held something very beautiful: a fresco (wall paintings on plaster) called “Christ in Majesty” and is now relocated in a museum - During this time, Spain turns to adorning the interior of churches with fresco paintings but it declines in the medieval period Gothic Period - The Durham Cathedral transitions from the Romanesque period to the Gothic period with pointed transverse arches, no barrel vaulting over the nave and also has a row of windows over the nave - Pointed arches don’t collapse as easily as Romanesque because the pressure goes down instead of outward - Where barrel vaults have groin vaults, pointed vaults have rib vaults (groin vaults with crossed arches) - This allows the structure to be built higher and allows room for a clerestory (row of windows above nave) - French Gothic is associated with the rise of anarchy and like Romanesque, is a art historical term applied much later as it was originally coined in the Renaissance period (Scandinavian Goths) - Created a grand and sensory environment that was meant to uplift the soul - The Church of Saint-Denis created by Abbot Surger was the origin point for French Gothic in 1140 - Surger corresponds with the Cluniac view of grandness in a spiritual place - The two words that explain the French Gothic period is 1.) Light and 2.) Height (closer to heaven) - Flying buttress: provides additional support, makes the church able to open up windows on the second story and eliminates the second-story gallery because they serve the same purpose - The interior layout is still very similar to Romanesque 5 - 3 level Gothic church: top = clerestory, middle = triforium (shallow opening with mini arcade), ground = nave arcade - Gothic churches get taller and taller with time and technological advances - Stained glass is huge in French Gothic as it serves as visual aides for its illiterate audience - Importance heightened by the fact that color was very hard to come by in the medieval world so it created a very awe-striking and spiritual response - As light passes through the images, it transforms into divine light (the spirit of saints, God’s Light) - Also cynically, reflected the church’s wealth and their relationship to the monarchy at the time - Monarchial signs like the fleur de lis and castles were often incorporated to reflect the union of the monarchy and the divine 6