New User Special Price Expires in

Let's log you in.

Sign in with Facebook


Don't have a StudySoup account? Create one here!


Create a StudySoup account

Be part of our community, it's free to join!

Sign up with Facebook


Create your account
By creating an account you agree to StudySoup's terms and conditions and privacy policy

Already have a StudySoup account? Login here

General Biology - BIOL 1305

by: Bianka

General Biology - BIOL 1305 BIOL 1305 - 001

GPA 3.8

Preview These Notes for FREE

Get a free preview of these Notes, just enter your email below.

Unlock Preview
Unlock Preview

Preview these materials now for free

Why put in your email? Get access to more of this material and other relevant free materials for your school

View Preview

About this Document

This is the first week of class notes.
General Biology - 13789
Horacio O Gonzalez
Class Notes
Biology, Biology: Ecology and Evolution, biological basis
25 ?




Popular in General Biology - 13789

Popular in Department

This 13 page Class Notes was uploaded by Bianka on Saturday August 27, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BIOL 1305 - 001 at University of Texas at El Paso taught by Horacio O Gonzalez in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 7 views.


Reviews for General Biology - BIOL 1305


Report this Material


What is Karma?


Karma is the currency of StudySoup.

You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!

Date Created: 08/27/16
Chapter 1: Principles of Life 08/26/2016 ▯ Key Concepts ▯ 1.1 Living Organisms Share Common Aspects of Structure, Function, and Energy Flow ▯ 1.2 Genetic Systems Control the Flow, Exchange, Storage, and Use of Information ▯ 1.3 Organisms Interact with and Affect Their Environments ▯ 1.4 Evolution Explains Both the Unity and Diversity of Life ▯ 1.5 Science Is Based on Quantifiable Observations and Experiments ▯ ▯ Concept 1.1 Living Organisms Share Common Aspects of Structure, Function, and Energy Flow ▯ Biology—the scientific study of living things ▯ ▯ “Living things”—All the diverse organisms descended from a single-celled ancestor (a single common ancestor) ▯ ▯ Characteristics of “Living Things” ▯ Organized Structure made up of a cell or cells ▯ Metabolic Capability ▯ Respiration Capacity ▯ Energy Required to survive or sustain existence ▯ Responsive to external Stimuli ▯ Reproductive Capability ▯ Capacity to Adapt to Environment ▯ Growth Potential ▯ Mobility Capacity ▯ ▯ Characteristics shared by all living organisms: ▯ Organization made up of a cell or cells ▯ Composed of a common set of chemical components and similar structures ▯ Contain genetic information that uses a nearly universal code ▯ ▯ Characteristics shared by all living organisms: ▯ Metabolic Capacity, Respiration Capacity, and Energy Requirement for Survival or Sustaining Existence ▯ Convert molecules obtained from their environment into new biological molecules ▯ Extract energy from the environment and use it to do biological work ▯ Responsive to Stimuli ▯ Regulate their internal environment ▯ Reproductive Capability ▯ Replicate their genetic information in the same manner when reproducing ▯ Share sequence similarities among a fundamental set of genes ▯ • Capacity to Adapt to Environment ▯ Evolve through gradual changes in genetic information ▯ ▯ Earth formed between 4.6 and 4.5 billion years ago. ▯ It was some 600 million years or more before the earliest life evolved. ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ Complex biological molecules possibly arose from random associations of chemicals in the early environment. ▯ Experiments that simulate conditions on early Earth show that this was possible. ▯ - Stanely Miller and Harold Urey (1950s), Joan Oro (1950s and 1960s), Bada (2000s) ▯ ▯ Critical step for evolution of life—formation of nucleic acids ▯ - Shown possible by Joan Oro in the 1950s ▯ ▯ Biological molecules were enclosed in membranes, to form the first cells. ▯ Formation of Fatty acids were essential in forming membranes. ▯ ▯ For 2 billion years, organisms were unicellular prokaryotes – similar to what we call extremophiles today. ▯ Early prokaryotes were confined to oceans, where they were protected from UV light. ▯ There was little or no O in the atmosphere, 2nd hence no protective ozone (O ) layer. 3 ▯ These early prokaryotes used Sulphate (SO ), Nitrate (NO ), Sulfur (S) or fumarate 42- 3- 2- - (C H2O 4 4 ), Carbon Dioxide (CO ) or Acetic Acid (C2 COO ) in place of O . 3 2 ▯ ▯ Photosynthesis evolved about 2.7 billion years ago. ▯ The energy of sunlight is transformed into the energy of biological molecules (sugars). ▯ Earliest photosynthetic cells were probably similar to cyanobacteria. ▯ O w2s a byproduct of photosynthesis, and it began to accumulate in the atmosphere. ▯ ▯ Figure 1.3 Photosynthetic Organisms Changed Earth’s Atmosphere (Part 2) ▯ ▯ Figure 1.3 Photosynthetic Organisms Changed Earth’s Atmosphere (Part 1) ▯ ▯ O 2as poisonous to many early prokaryotes. ▯ Organisms that could tolerate O evolved aerobic metaboli2m (energy production using O ), wh2ch is more efficient than anaerobic metabolism. ▯ Organisms were able to grow larger. Aerobic metabolism is used by most living organisms today. ▯ O 2lso produced a layer of ozone (O ) in the upper atmosphere. 3 ▯ This layer absorbs UV light, and its formation allowed organisms to move from the ocean to land ▯ ▯ Some cells evolved membrane-enclosed compartments called organelles. ▯ Example: The nucleus contains the genetic information. ▯ These cells are eukaryotes. ▯ Prokaryotes lack nuclei and other internal compartments. ▯ ▯ Some organelles may have originated by endosymbiosis, when larger cells engulfed smaller ones. ▯ Mitochondria (site of energy generation) probably evolved from engulfed prokaryotic organisms. ▯ Chloroplasts (site of photosynthesis) probably evolved from photosynthetic prokaryotes. ▯ ▯ Multicellular organisms arose about 1 billion years ago. ▯ Cellular specialization—cells became specialized to perform certain functions. ▯ Evolution of species: ▯ Mutations are introduced when a genome is replicated. ▯ Some mutations give rise to structural and functional changes in organisms, and new species arise ▯ Each species has a distinct scientific name, a binomial: ▯ • Genus name ▯ • Species name ▯ Example: Homo sapiens ▯ Evolutionary relationships of species can be determined by comparing genomes. ▯ A phylogenetic tree documents and diagrams evolutionary relationships. ▯ ▯ Relationships in the tree of life are determined by fossil evidence, structures, metabolic processes, behavior, and molecular analyses of genomes. ▯ Three domains of life: ▯ • Bacteria (prokaryotes) ▯ • Archaea (prokaryotes) ▯ • Eukarya (eukaryotes) ▯ ▯ Because all life is related, discoveries made using one type of organism can be extended to other types. ▯ Biologists use model systems for research, such as the green alga Chlorella to study photosynthesis. ▯ ▯ Concept 1.2 Genetic Systems Control the Flow, Exchange, Storage, and Use of Information ▯ Genome—the sum total of all the information encoded by an organism’s genes ▯ DNA consists of repeating subunits called nucleotides. ▯ Gene—a specific segment of DNA that contains information for making a protein ▯ Proteins govern chemical reactions in cells and form much of an organism’s structure. ▯ ▯ Figure 1.5 DNA Is Life’s Blueprint ▯ ▯ DNA Transcription and Protein Assembly Video: v=nHM4UUVHPQM ▯ ▯ Mutations alter nucleotide sequences of a gene, and the protein is often altered as well. ▯ ▯ Mutations may occur during replication, or be caused by chemicals and radiation. ▯ Most are harmful or have no effect, but some may improve the functioning/ability of the organism and its descendent to survive. ▯ Mutations are the raw material of evolution. ▯ Complete genome sequences have been determined for many organisms ▯ ▯ ▯ Genome sequences are used to study the genetic basis of everything from physical structure to inherited diseases, and evolutionary relationships. ▯ ▯ Concept 1.3 Organisms Interact with and Affect Their Environments ▯ Biological systems are organized in a hierarchy. ▯ Traditionally, biologists concentrated on one level of the hierarchy, but today much biology involves integrating investigations across many levels. ▯ ▯ System: a set of interacting parts for which neither the parts nor the ▯ whole can be understood without taking into account the interactions. ▯ ▯ Living organisms acquire nutrients from their environments. ▯ Nutrients supply energy and materials for biochemical reactions. ▯ Biochemical reactions break nutrient molecules into smaller units, releasing energy for work and then build new molecules from the smaller units and energy. ▯ ▯ Examples of cellular work: ▯ Catabolism: Breaking down complex molecules to their smaller chemical units ▯ Synthesis (Anabolism): Building new complex molecules from smaller chemical units ▯ Movement of molecules (in the cell or throughout the organism), or movement of the whole organism ▯ Electrical work of information processing in nervous systems ▯ ▯ Metabolism is the sum total of all chemical transformations and other work done in all cells of an organism. ▯ The reactions are integrally linked—the products of one are the raw materials of the next. ▯ We can think of metabolism like products being produced from raw materials through several steps and factories. ▯ ▯ In multicellular organisms, cells are specialized, or differentiated. ▯ Differentiated cells are organized into tissues. ▯ Tissue types are organized into organs, and organ systems are groups of organs with interrelated functions. ▯ ▯ Multicellular organisms have an internal environment that is partially acellular—an extracellular environment of fluids. ▯ Homeostasis—maintenance of a narrow range of conditions in this internal environment that make life possible. ▯ Regulatory systems maintain homeostasis in both multicellular organisms and in individual cells. ▯ ▯ Organisms interact: ▯ Population—group of individuals of the same species that interact with one another ▯ A community—populations of all the species that live in the same area and interact ▯ Communities plus their abiotic environment constitute an ecosystem. ▯ ▯ Individuals may compete with each other for resources, or they may cooperate (e.g., in a termite colony). ▯ Plants also compete for light and water, and many form complex partnerships with fungi, bacteria, and animals. ▯ ▯ The Queen of Trees Documentary ▯ ▯ Species interaction with one another and with their environment is the subject of ecology ▯ Interactions of plants and animals are major evolutionary forces that produce specialized adaptations. ▯ ▯ Concept 1.4 Evolution Explains Both the Unity and Diversity of Life ▯ ▯ Evolution is a change in genetic makeup of biological populations through time—a major unifying principle of biology. ▯ Charles Darwin proposed that all living organisms are descended from a common ancestor by the mechanism of natural selection. ▯ Natural selection leads to adaptations—structural, physiological, or behavioral traits that enhance an organism’s chances of survival and reproduction ▯ ▯ In science, a theory is a body of scientific work in which rigorously tested and well- established facts and principles are used to make predictions about the natural world. ▯ Evolutionary theory is: ▯ (1) a body of knowledge supported by facts ▯ (2) the resulting understanding of mechanisms by which populations have changed and diversified over time, and continue to evolve ▯ ▯ Evolution can be observed and measured by: ▯ Changes in genetic composition of populations and between species in short time frames ▯ The fossil record—population changes over very long time frames ▯ ▯ Concept 1.5 Science Is Based on Quantifiable Observations and Experiments ▯ ▯ Scientific investigations are based on observation and experimentation. ▯ Understanding the natural history of organisms—how they get food, reproduce, behave, regulate internal environments, and interact with other organisms—facilitates observation and leads to questions. ▯ ▯ Observation is enhanced by technology: microscopes, imaging, genome sequencing, and satellites. ▯ Observations must be quantified by measurement and mathematical and statistical calculations. ▯ ▯ The scientific method (hypothesis–prediction (H–P) method): ▯ Observations ▯ Questions ▯ Hypotheses ▯ Predictions ▯ Testing ▯ ▯ Inductive logic leads to tentative explanations called hypotheses. ▯ Deductive logic is used to make predictions. ▯ Experiments are designed to test these predictions. ▯ ▯ Controlled experiments manipulate the variable that is predicted to cause differences between groups. ▯ Independent variable—the variable being manipulated ▯ Dependent variable—the response that is measured ▯ ▯ ▯ Comparative experiments look for differences between samples or groups. ▯ The variables cannot be controlled; data are gathered from different sample groups and compared. ▯ E.g., Epidemiological and Field Studies ▯ ▯ Statistical methods help scientists determine if differences between groups are significant. ▯ Statistical tests start with a null hypothesis—that no differences exists. ▯ Statistical methods eliminate the possibility that results are due to random variation. ▯ ▯ Not all forms of inquiry into nature are scientific. ▯ Scientific hypotheses must be testable, and have the potential of being rejected. ▯ Science depends on evidence that comes from reproducible and quantifiable observations. ▯ ▯ Religious or spiritual explanations of natural phenomena are not testable and therefore are not science. ▯ Science and religion are largely non-overlapping approaches to inquiry because science deals with the natural world of repeatable events. ▯ ▯ Scientific advances that may contribute to human welfare may also raise ethical questions. ▯ Science describes how the world works; it is silent on the question of how the world “ought to be.” ▯ Contributions from other forms of human inquiry may help us come to grips with such questions. ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯


Buy Material

Are you sure you want to buy this material for

25 Karma

Buy Material

BOOM! Enjoy Your Free Notes!

We've added these Notes to your profile, click here to view them now.


You're already Subscribed!

Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'

Why people love StudySoup

Bentley McCaw University of Florida

"I was shooting for a perfect 4.0 GPA this semester. Having StudySoup as a study aid was critical to helping me achieve my goal...and I nailed it!"

Amaris Trozzo George Washington University

"I made $350 in just two days after posting my first study guide."

Jim McGreen Ohio University

"Knowing I can count on the Elite Notetaker in my class allows me to focus on what the professor is saying instead of just scribbling notes the whole time and falling behind."

Parker Thompson 500 Startups

"It's a great way for students to improve their educational experience and it seemed like a product that everybody wants, so all the people participating are winning."

Become an Elite Notetaker and start selling your notes online!

Refund Policy


All subscriptions to StudySoup are paid in full at the time of subscribing. To change your credit card information or to cancel your subscription, go to "Edit Settings". All credit card information will be available there. If you should decide to cancel your subscription, it will continue to be valid until the next payment period, as all payments for the current period were made in advance. For special circumstances, please email


StudySoup has more than 1 million course-specific study resources to help students study smarter. If you’re having trouble finding what you’re looking for, our customer support team can help you find what you need! Feel free to contact them here:

Recurring Subscriptions: If you have canceled your recurring subscription on the day of renewal and have not downloaded any documents, you may request a refund by submitting an email to

Satisfaction Guarantee: If you’re not satisfied with your subscription, you can contact us for further help. Contact must be made within 3 business days of your subscription purchase and your refund request will be subject for review.

Please Note: Refunds can never be provided more than 30 days after the initial purchase date regardless of your activity on the site.