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Social Psychology Chapter 1 and 2 Notes

by: Stephanie

Social Psychology Chapter 1 and 2 Notes Psy 321

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These notes cover the end of Chapter 1 and some of Chapter 2.
Social Psychology
Carrie Smith
Class Notes
social, Psychology, PSY321, Lecture Notes
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Stephanie on Saturday August 27, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Psy 321 at University of Mississippi taught by Carrie Smith in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 20 views. For similar materials see Social Psychology in Psychology at University of Mississippi.

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Date Created: 08/27/16
PSY 321:  Social Psychology Chapter 1:  What is Social Psychology? (Cont’d) I. Person x Situation (cont’d) a. Different people can respond the same way to the same situation b. Different people can respond in different ways to the same situation c. Situations can choose the person i. Situations can act like magnets and draw particular people 1. Ex:  A rave will be more attractive to some people than others d. People can choose the situation i. People have the choice of what situations they are drawn to e. Different parts of situations can arouse different aspects of people f. People can change situations g. Situations can change the person II. Two Fundamental Axioms of Social Psychology a. Axiom:  Universally accepted principle b. Axiom 1:  Individuals socially construct or construe their own reality i. Each person makes their own reality c. Axiom 2:  Social influence manifests itself in every aspect of social life (even  when alone) i. Everything you do is affected by other people even when you are by  yourself III. Three Motivational Principles that Guide Social Behavior a. People strive for mastery of the social world i. People want a world that makes sense to them b. People seek connectedness/ belonging i. We are social creatures and we do not do well by ourselves c. People value “me and mine” i. We place a lot of emphasis and value on ourselves and things that we are  associated with Chapter 2:  Research Methodology in Social Psychology I. Two approaches to research design a. The correlational approach b. Experimental approach II. Correlational research a. What does it look for? i. Correlational research looks for a relationship 1. Is there a link or relationship between variables? b. How does it work? i. In correlational research, you have to measure the variables that you are  interested in 1. Ex:  Surveys c. r­correlation coefficient i. This shows how related two variables are ii. It ranges for ­1 to 1 iii. What does 0 mean? 1. 0 means that there is no relationship between variables 2. Closer to 0 means that it is a non or weak relationship 3. Closer to ­1 or 1 means that it is a strong relationship iv. Negative v. Positive 1. When you care about the strength of the correlation then you look  at the number 2. Positive and negative tell the direction of the relationship a. Positive:  One variable goes one way and the other follows b. Negative:  One variable goes one way and the other goes in the opposite direction d. Correlational research experiments i. Predictor variable 1. This is the variable that we think will predict something ii. Outcome variable 1. This is the thing that we are trying to predict e. The warning i. Correlation does not equal causation 1. To prove cause then you must prove: a. Temporal precedence:  For X to cause Y then X must come before Y.  X must proceed Y in time b. Rule out other explanations i. 3  variable problem:  There could be some 3   rd variable in an experiment that is linking X and Y III. Experimental research a. What does it look for? i. Experimental research looks for a causal relationship b. How does it work? i. It manipulates a variable (the independent variable) and measures a  different variable (the dependent variable) c. Experiments i. Ex:  Take a group of participants and divide them into 2 subgroups by  random assignment.  Flip a coin.  Heads is Group A and tails is Group B.   Make sure that both groups are equal in every way.   1. Manipulate the variable a. This is the independent variable b. (Same example)  Group A spends 10 minutes on Facebook  while Group B spends 30 minutes on Facebook 2. Measure the other variable a. This is the dependent variable b. (Same example) After each group is finished with their  time on Facebook then measure their life satisfaction c. If their life satisfaction is different, then you can say that  Facebook increases dissatisfaction with life d. Why is experimental research so great? i. We get to determine a cause ii. If experimental is so great, then why do correlational research? 1. Not every variable can be manipulated 2. There are some cases where you cannot determine the cause


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