Chemistry 104, week 1 notes
Chemistry 104, week 1 notes CH 104
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Meghan Skiba on Saturday August 27, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to CH 104 at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by Stephen Woski in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 127 views.
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Date Created: 08/27/16
Chemistry August 23, 2016 Chapters 13 homework due September 12 on Connect Chapters 13 test on September 13 6:30 PM (34 exam questions, 11 questions per chapter, extra question on balloons) Blackboard Collaborate tonight recitation problem working at 6:30 PM (open at 6:00) Can check test practice answers against key during office hours CHAPTER ONE Scientific Method: Observations – Hypothesis – Experiments – Theory States of Matter: Solid – Liquid – Gas Solid: definite volume definite shape particles in order Liquid: definite volume no definite shape particles close but can move around Gas: no definite volume no definite shape particles far apart and move randomly Physical Changes: A physical change alters the material without altering composition Ex: solid water melting liquid water boiling Chemical Changes: A chemical change alters the material by altering the composition. It is the conversion of one substance into another Ex: hydrogen balloons reacting to oxygen in the air produces water Classification of Matter: Matter Can it be separated by a physical process? Yes: Mixture (salt filled with rice grains) No: Pure Substance (salt without rice grains) Can it be broken down into simpler substances by a chemical reaction? Yes: Compound No: Element (atoms) Units of Measure: Quantity Metric Base Unit Symbol Length Meter m Mass Gram g Volume Liter L Time Second s Metric Prefixes: Prefix Symbol Meaning Numerical Value Scientific Notation Giga G Billion 1000000000 10^9 Mega M Million 1000000 10^6 Kilo k Thousand 1000 10^3 Deci d Tenth 0.1 10^1 Centi c Hundredth 0.01 10^2 Milli m Thousandth 0.001 10^3 Micro ^c Millionth 0.000001 10^6 Nano n Billionth 0.000000001 10^9 Numbers: An exact number results from counting objects or is part of a definition 10 fingers 10 toes 1 meter = 100 centimeters An inexact number results from a measurement or observation and contains some uncertainty 15.3 cm 1000.8 g 0.0034 mL Significant Figures: Significant figures are all digits in a measured number including one estimated digit All nonzero digits are significant 65.2 g (3 sig figs) 255.345 (6 sig figs) Rules for zero A zero is significant if: between two nonzero digits 29.05 g (4 sig figs) 1.0087 mL (5 sig figs) at the end of a number with a decimal place 3.7500 cm (5 sig figs) 620. lb (3 sig figs) A zero is not significant if: at the beginning of a number 0.00245 mg (3 sig figs) 0.008 mL (1 sig fig) at the end of a number without a decimal place 2570 m (3 sig figs) 1245500 m (5 sig figs) Multiplication and Division The answer has the same number of significant figures as the original number with the fewest number of significant figures 351.2 mi /5.5 hr = 64 mi/hr Addition and Subtraction The answer has the same number of decimal places as the original number with the fewest decimal places 10.11 kg – 3.6 kg = 6.51 (line decimal points up and draw vertical line to represent last sig fig) Scientific Notation: A number has a coefficient (between 1 and 10), and an exponent (positive or negative whole number) Conversion Factors: Taking an original quantity and converting it into a quantity with a different unit In order to do a conversion, you need a conversion factor Ask yourself: What is the original quantity? What is the desired quantity? You must know metric to metric conversions on your own Sometimes, you will be given more information than you need to solve it. Ignore this extra information. ex: How many grams of asprin are in a 325mg tablet? 1000mg = 1g (325mg) x (1g/1000mg) = 0.325 g (make sure the quantities cancel out) ex: How many grams of asprin are in a 100 tablet bottle? (100 tablets/bottle) x (325mg/1 tablet) x (0.01g/mg) = 32.5g/bottle ex: How many feet are in 25 km? 2.54 cm = 1 in || 25 km = 25000 m || 25000 m = 2500000 cm 2500000 cm/2.54cm = 9845251.9685 cm 9845251.9685 cm/12 in = 82020.997 ft = 82000 feet (remember sig figs) Temperature Scales: Fahrenheit (F) Absolute Zero: 460 Freezing: 32 Normal Body Temp: 98.6 Boiling: 212 Celsius (C) Absolute Zero: 273 Freezing: 0 Normal Body Temp: 37 Boiling Point: 100 Kelvin (K) Absolute Zero: 0 Freezing: 273 Normal Body Temp: 310 Boiling: 373 At absolute zero, molecules stop moving around…no life exists…impossible to replicate Conversions: Celsius to Fahrenheit: F = 1.8(C) + 32 Fahrenheit to Celsius: C = (F32)/(1.8) Celsius to Kelvin: K = C + 32 Kelvin to Celsius: C = K 273 Density: D = m/v … Densities have significant figures Air (g): 0.001225 g/mL (1.225 x 10^3) Gasoline (l): 0.720 g/mL Ethanol (l): 0.789 g/mL Ice (s): 0.934 g/cc Water (l): 1.00 g/mL Steel (s): 7.90 g/cc Mercury (l): 13.5 g/mL Gold (s): 19.3 g/cc 1 cc = 1 mL Conversions: mL to g mL x (g/mL) = g g to mL g x (mL/g) = mL Specific Gravity: = density of substance (g/mL)/density of water (g/mL) Density of water = 1g/mL
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