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Human Development week 1 notes

by: Meghan Skiba

Human Development week 1 notes HD 101

Meghan Skiba

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Basics to the beginning of Human Development, including key people and terms
Intro To HUman Development
Erin Miller
Class Notes
Human, development
25 ?




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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Meghan Skiba on Saturday August 27, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to HD 101 at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by Erin Miller in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 19 views. For similar materials see Intro To HUman Development in Human Development at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa.


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Date Created: 08/27/16
Human Development August 23, 2016 Homework online on Launchpad Quiz due Thursday night on Launchpad  The Science of Human Development Understanding how and why people of all ages and circumstances change or remain the same  over time Understanding How and Why Five basic steps of Scientific Method Begin with curiosity Develop a hypothesis Test the hypothesis Draw conclusions Report results Replication Nature vs. Nurture Debate Nature Influence of inherited genes Nurture Environmental influences that affect development Epigenetics How environmental factors affect genes and genetic expression Differential Susceptibility How environmental experiences differ because of particular inherited genes Domains of Human Development Biological Development (bodies) Cognitive Development (thinking) Psychological Development (social world) Age Ranges for Different Periods of Development Infancy 0 to 2 years Early Childhood 2 to 6 years Middle Childhood 6 to 11 years Adolescence 11 to 18 years Emerging Adulthood 18 to 25 years Adulthood 25 to 65 years Late Adulthood 65 years and older “Do these age ranges apply to all children? Why? Why not?” Life Span Perspective Development is multi directional  Over time, human characteristics change in every direction  Several major theorists describe discontinuous stages of development:  Freud, Erickson, Piaget  Others view development as a continuous process  Critical and Sensitive Periods  Critical Periods    Development must happen at this time for normal development  Sensitive Periods     Development occurs most easily at this time ex: learned language around age 1­3 Development is multi­contextual  Historical Context Cohort: all persons born within a few years of one another are said to be a cohort, a group defined by the shared age of its members Ecological Systems Approach (Bronfenbrenner) Each person is affected by social environment  Ecological Model Largest to smallest: Macrosystem (political processes) ­­Exosystem (university)  ­­ Mesosystem (connections) – Microsystem (family)    Socioeconomic context Socioeconomic status (SES): Income, wealth, occupation, education, and  neighborhood   Poverty Traditionally relates to food costs and family size Development is Multi Cultural  Culture System of shared beliefs, norms, behaviors, and expectations that persist over  time and prescribe social behavior  Social Construction Based on shared perceptions, not on objective reality  Deficit or Just Difference? Humans tend to believe that they, their nation, and their culture are a little better  than others (difference equals deficit error) Belief becomes destructive id it reduces respect and appreciation for others Differences may be assets or deficits  Lev Vygotsky: described interaction between culture and education  Ethnic and Racial Groups Ethnicity Social construction – affected by social context, not a direct outcome of  biology.  Ethnic Group Consists of people whose ancestors were born in the same region and  who often share a language, culture, and religion Race Social construction that continues to lead racism Development is Plastic  Plasticity is basic to a contemporary understanding of human development  It simultaneously incorporates two facts: People can change over time New behavior depend partly on what has already happened Human Development – Chapter 1 Continued August 25, 2016 Theories of Human Development :  Developmental Theory Systematic statement of principles and generalizations Framework for understanding how and why people change as they grow older Psychoanalytic Theory: Freud and Erikson Theory:   irrational, unconscious drives and motives originate in childhood  and underlie human behavior Freud:  first psychoanalyst  proposes five psychosexual stages where sensual satisfaction is  linked to developmental needs and conflicts  suggests personality patterns are determined by early conflict  resolution Erik Erikson:  described eight developmental stages, characterized by a  challenging developmental crisis  proposed five psychosocial stages built on Freud’s theory, but  added three adult stages  Behaviorism: John Watson Learning Theory  focuses on observable behavior  describes the laws and processes by which behavior is learned Conditioning  proposes that learning takes place through processes by which  responess become linked to particular smimuli Classical Conditioning/ Respondent Conditioning: Pavlov  demonstrates that behaviors can be learned by associations  between an environmental and a naturally occurring  stimulus Operant Conditioning/ Instrumental Conditioning: Pavlov & Skinner  a learning process in which a particular action is followed  either by something desired or something unwanted,  making the action either more or less likely to be repeated B.F. Skinner:  Inspired by Pavlov  experiments with rats, pigeons, and his own daughter Social Learning Theory: Albert Bandura extension of behaviorism that emphasizes that other people influence each  person’s behavior proposes that, even without specific reinforcement, every individual learns many  things through observation and imitation of other people (modeling) Albert Bandura:   first described social learning theory  emphasizes the influence that other people have over a person’s  behavior Cognitive Theory: Jean Piaget – four major age related periods assimilation: experiences are interpreted to fit into or assimilate with old ideas accommodation: old ideas are restructured to include or accommodate new ideas  proposes thoughts and expectations profoundly affect actions,  attitudes, beliefs, and assumptions  focuses on changes in how people think over time four periods:   sensorimotor  preoperational  concrete operational  formal operational Humanism: Abraham Maslow arranges common human needs in hierarchy stresses the potential all human beings have to be good and the believed that all  people have the same basic needs, regardless of culture or gender or other variables 1. psychological 2. safe and secure 3. love and belonging 4. esteem 5. self­actualization Evolutionary Theory: Charles Darwin suggests that organisms change over time as a result of changes in heritable  physical or behavioral traits ­survival over time­ Using The Scientific Method Scientific Observation required researchers to record behavior systematically and objectively may be conducted in a naturalistic setting or a laboratory Experiments establish causal relationships among variables Variables  independent  dependent Groups  experimental group  comparison group Survey included information collected from a large number of people through interview,  questionnaire, or some other means Challenges  acquiring valid survey data is not easy  some people lie; some change their minds  survey answers are influenced by the wording and the sequence of  the questions Basic Research Designs cross sectional (quicker) longitudinal research cross sequential research (combination of cross sectional and longitudinal) Cautions and Challenges From Science: Correlations: a correlation exists between two variables if one variable is more (or less) likely  to occur when the other does not  positive, negative, or zero correlation CORRELATION DOES N O T EQUAL CAUSATION Qualitative Research: easily translated across cultures easier to summarize, chart, and replicate more vulnerable to bias and harder to replicate Ethics Each academic discipline and professional sociery involved in the study of human  development has a code of ethics (ex; IRB)  ensure that participation is voluntary, confidential, and harmless  ensure that participants understand the research procedures and any risks involved  promote research accuracy, honesty, and truthfulness  study and report data on many issues that are crucial for the  optimal development of all people 


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