Honors Biology of Animals Notes: Week One
Honors Biology of Animals Notes: Week One Bio 1303
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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Madilyn Ball on Sunday August 28, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Bio 1303 at Arkansas State University taught by Jerry L. Farris in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 81 views. For similar materials see Honors Biology of Animals in Biology at Arkansas State University.
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Date Created: 08/28/16
Honors Biology of Animals Dr. Boves Week One: 22 August 2016 – 26 August 2016 Lecture Notes What is science? o Science is our effort to completely understand the how and why of the natural world and its history, using physical evidence as proof. o This is done by conducting experiments or by observing natural phenomena. o The ultimate goal of this process is the accumulation of knowledge. What can science do? o Science is used to explain natural phenomena and answer questions that can be tested in the observable world. o If you can’t observe it or test it, it cannot be explained with science. o If it has anything to do with the supernatural or magical, it cannot be explained with science. Conclusions in science are never 100% o The knowledge gained through scientific process is inherently uncertain. o Knowledge that is accepted has a certain level or percentage of certainty, and scientists work to increase that level of certainty. Pseudoscience is science that has been poorly done or has been misused. For example, unconfirmed claims being presented as fact. It is important for scientists to be skeptical. What is Zoology? o Zoology is the scientific study of animal life. o People have always tried to figure out why and how animals do what they do. Mythology is a good example of people doing this. There are two types of questions in science: Proximate and Ultimate o Proximate questions ask how and can by explain by a physiological, genetic, or developmental mechanism o Ultimate questions ask why and are related to evolution Related to the survival and reproduction of the species Related to the Ancestral State of the behavior or mechanism. Ancestral State means that the behavior or mechanism used to be beneficial to the survival of the species so it was passed on. Chapter One Textbook Notes Life: Biological Principals and the Science of Zoology Fundamental Properties of Life: There are eight general properties of living systems. 1. The molecular organization of living systems is unique and complex. 2. The hierarchical organization of living systems is also unique and complex. 3. Living systems can have offspring. 4. Living systems have a genetic code. 5. Living systems survive by metabolizing energy and nutrients that they acquire from their environment. 6. All living systems have a life cycle (infancy – childhood – adolescence – adulthood – old age) 7. Living systems interact with the environment around them. 8. Living systems can control their parts from within themselves (like the brain controlling our bodily movement). Principles of Science: 1. Science is led by natural law. 2. Science has to be able to be explained with references to natural law. 3. Science has to be able to be tested in the observable world (no hypothetical testing). 4. Scientific conclusions are inherently uncertain, and therefore cannot be considered the final word. 5. Science can be proven wrong. Darwin’s theory of evolution: Darwin listed five factors that have an impact on the evolution of the species. 1. Perpetual change: the circumstances of the world do not remain constant, but they do not constantly cycle like the seasons either. They are always changing into something new. 2. Common descent: we all have a common ancestor. 3. Multiplication of species: new species are made through the transformation of others due to evolution. 4. Gradualism: The reason that there are such big differences in so many different kinds of species is because small changes have accumulated over time. 5. Natural selection: organisms that are most equipped to survive the circumstances of their environments are the ones that live and reproduce, and therefore pass on their genetic material.
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