ANSC_2000_notes_1.pdf ANSC 2000 - 001
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kaitlyn Elliott on Sunday August 28, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to ANSC 2000 - 001 at Auburn University taught by Carolyn E Huntington in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 9 views. For similar materials see Companion Animal Management in Animal Science at Auburn University.
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Date Created: 08/28/16
ANSC 2000 Notes1 Evolution of Domestication Key Terms & Definitions : 1. Hesperocyonevolved in North America 40 mill. years ago; looked like a cross between a weasel & a fox; extinct 15 mill. years ago 2. Borophagines Existed 34 mill. years ago; larger hyenalike animals w/ large jaws & strong teeth; extinct 2.5 mill. years ago 3. Canines Includes all living species of canines 4. Dogs 1 domesticated animal 5. DomesticationThe point at which the care, feeding, & breeding of a species come under the control of people 6. Darwin’s theory of a biological evolution Within each species there is a natural variation of traits and those individuals whose traits make them more like to reproduce will pass them on to the next generation 7. Felis silvestris libyca wild desertliving cat that inhabited Asia & North Africa which is thought to be the main ancestor of the domestic cat today 8. Coevolution The process by which two species evolve in concert Memorize: Dogs: (King) Kingdom: Animalia (Philip) Phylum: Chordata (Came) Class: Mammalia (Over) Order: Carnivora (For) Family: Canidae (Ginger) Genus: Canis (Snaps) Species: lupus Subspecies: C. l. familiaris Cats: Kingdom: Animalia Phylum: Chordata Class: Mammalia Order: Carnivora Family: Felidae Genus: Felis Species: silvestris Subspecies: F. s. catus Important information: Dogs are confirmed to be descendants of wolves (gray wolf) 1 domesticated in East Asia, maybe even China - Suggested that they lived there the longest mixing & matching genetic makeup They have followed humans around the globe - Trotted across Bering Land Bridge to Alaska 12,000 yrs. ago - Remains in Latin America & Alaska matched European & Asian dogs **Domestication occurs when humans become primary selection agents in evolution of a species** Lived w/ humans for at least 15,000 yrs., maybe even 30,000100,000+ yrs! Dogs are found in large #’s: - 5 per 100 ppl in Germany & Japan - 10 per 100 people in UK - 18 per 100 people in US Cats were domesticated ~9,000 yrs. ago - ~21 cats per 100 people in US Modern world wild dogs will visit to scavenge food which can buildup trust over a period of time and possible allow humans to handle them eventually Humans may have benefited from this w/ security since dogs would act as a warning system once they detected visitors around the encampment Dogs respect a social hierarchy - Humans could easily dominate them They were selected & bred for specific purposes - Utilitarian considerations like size, speed, & strength - Utilize their hunting & retrieving skills o Sheepdogs, hunting/gun dogs, racing dogs, lapdogs Concept of animal companionship slow to evolve - People hunted & farmed to feed families - Used dogs to guard home, rid premises of pests, pull carts Dogs were also given a religious significance in some countries - Believed to escort the dead to the underworld They were given as gifts to distinguish social status and traded like commodities if they had unusual characteristics Indians in North America were observed w/ a variety of pets - Tamed raccoons, bears, wolves, & moose Indians in South America kept animals as well - Tamed monkeys, rats, parrots, macaws, & jaguars Australian aborigines kept wallabies, opossums, & frogs The domestication of certain animals lies in the biology for sake of desirable traits - Docility, lack of fear, high reproductive rate Animal husbandry adopted to feed rapidly growing populations - Food & clothing Also, in response to climatic or environmental changes that eliminated traditional sources of game - Develop longer necks to eat leaves at tops of trees - Heavier fur as climate gets colder Variation & natural selection can explain how species have adapted to their environment as well as explain why some have become extinct - Different shape of teeth or mouth of horses allows to crop better during limited food supply Domesticated animals display loss of defense, fearful & territorial behaviors due to biological changes - Animals marks in snow: o Cautious (straight & purposeful) o Carefree (circle & zig zag) Pioneers faced many obstacles while restraining wild animals in captivity - Requires generations of time - Aggression in tamed wild animals after sexual maturity is reached - Attacks as a result of prey behavior Behavioral modifications from domestication changes in response threshold to certain stimuli Increased docility & adaptability Perpetuation of infantile behavior patterns - Enables owners to talk to & treat them as children Trend to promiscuity rather than pairbond mating Dogs exhibit big variability from ancestors - Major Variation in hair color & length o Wild: yellow, brown, & black - Gradual foreshortening of head & muzzle resulting in some flatfaced breeds - Variety of temperaments - Variety of sizes o Chihuahua vs. Great Dane - Variety of shapes o Greyhounds vs. Bulldogs Difficult to map evolution of cats since there is a reduction in fossilization due to their forested habitats 38 species of cat family Largest: Siberian tiger - 400600 lbs. Smallest: Blackfooted cat - 34 lbs. Importance in culture seen in ancient tombs & temples - Cats mummified w/ masters Domestication believed to have coincided w/ time that agriculture flourished in Mesopotamia & Middle East - Houses, barns, & grain stores exploited rodents which just so happened to be the felines favorite prey Mutually beneficial relationship - Controlled pests while receiving food o Wild African bush cats encouraged to stay near human dwelling w/ scraps of food Docile wild cats gradually absorbed in human society where role became diversified: - Good: Partners of Egyptian aristocrats in hunting birds, demand in Europe as killers of diseasespreading rodents - Bad: Became associated w/ witches & warlocks so superstitious people associated them w/ Lucifer causing thousands to be killed by religious zealots which likely contributed to the spread of the Black Death (bubonic plague) in Europe Even in countries where dogs & cats are considered vermin, they continue to flourish - Suggests that their survival has nothing to do w/ being rewarded for their utility to man Examples of adaptation to technology: - Sea gulls mobbing fishing boats - Squirrels at bird feeders - Bears feed on handouts from tourists at parks - Raccoons raid garbage cans Coevolution believes that one species’ behavior influences evolution of another like predatorprey relationships - Lion vs. antelope: o Antelope able to jump & run quickly o Lions w/ sharp claws, stalking behavior, & keen sense of smell
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