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Class Notes Wk 1

by: Andrea Vega
Andrea Vega


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About this Document

Types of drugs History of drugs Harrison Narcotic Act 19th-21st centuries
Drugs and Behavior
Nicole sell
Class Notes
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Andrea Vega on Sunday August 28, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BBH 143 at 1 MDSS-SGSLM-Langley AFB Advanced Education in General Dentistry 12 Months taught by Nicole sell in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 4 views. For similar materials see Drugs and Behavior in BBH at 1 MDSS-SGSLM-Langley AFB Advanced Education in General Dentistry 12 Months.


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Date Created: 08/28/16
BBH Thurs Aug 25 What is a drug? • Best definition: Substances hat alter the structure or functioning of the body that people consume intentionally to achieve certain results • Considers the role of intent in drug-taking behavior • Any substance that, when taken into the body, alter its structure or functioning in some way • Excludes nutrients • Illicit vs. licit • Licit when age requirement is met o Nicotine (18) o Alcohol (21) Types of drug use • Instrumental- taking drug for purpose other than getting high o Pills for headaches o Pills for blood pressure • Recreational- taking at drug to get high Why study the history of drugs? • Helps us understand some of our current outlook/laws on drugs Origins • It’s thought that most drugs developed through a process called co-evolution • Plants developed chemical defenses against animals • Peoples may have observed animals after eating plants and learned about the effects that these plants have. Animals might have… o Gotten sleepy o Gotten energized o Died • Much early drug use was entheogenic (to cure) Shamans • Shamans are intermediaries between spirit and physical world • Use plants to cure people • Some plants/drugs are used to achieve altered states • Example: In Arizona some people use a special type of cactus Drugs and history • Ebers Papyrus (1500 BC) contained more than 800 prescriptions. Aka, taking drugs is NOT a “new thing” • Vikings ate mushroom, which contributed to wild behavior in battle • Best documented cases of drug use in ancient human history involve wine and beer consumption • Native Americans smoked tobacco ritualistically and recreationally • Spanish conquistadors were impressed by the energy of Peruvian workers (from chewing coco leaves) th th 19 and 20 centuries • Advanced understanding of drugs structure • Pure compounds isolated • New drugs synthesized o LSD o Heroin o MDMA • Patent medicines- contained opium, alcohol and contain • Opium and cocaine were widely used (anyone from babies to senor citizens used these) • Morphine and heroin seen as “wonder drugs” (they came from opium) • Cocaine viewed as harmless • Concerned about dependence arose • In 1900s, legislation began to be developed laws and regulations (influenced by racism) o Pure Food and Drug Act (1906) (Lead to today’s FDA) Harrison Narcotic Act 1914 • Tax Act placed restrictions on sales, importation, and production • Designed to control heroin and cocaine Richard Pearson Hobson • Father of American Prohibition • “The addict has an insane desire to makes addicts out of other” • “One addict will recruit seven others in his lifetime” • “Drug addiction is far more incurable than leoparcy..more communicable…and is spreading like Volstead Act • AKA National Prohibition Act • Enforced 18 amendment, which prohibited alcoholic beverages o Repealed in 1933 • “American must open its eyes and recognize that human nature cannot be changed by legal enactment”- Henry Joy, member of the Anti-Saloon League and supporter of Prohibition 1940’s and 1960’s • Bacterial infection controlled o Penicillin • Smoking was viewed as “sexy” and “attractive” o Mad men era o Half of men population were smokers o A quarter of million of women population were smokers • Alcohol and tobacco viewed as non-drugs • Heroin, cocaine, and marijuana considered bad and were illegal • Barbiturate (aka sedative ad sleep-inducing drugs derived from barbituric acid) was widespread • More women than men received drug prescriptions, mainly because women visit the doctor more often • 1960’s drug experimentation in younger age groups (lots of stressful events going on during this era) • Initially some drugs were seen as lower-class, but once younger middle-class teens began to use those drugs, they couldn’t be related to poverty anymore 1970’s • 1970: Controlled Substances Act • 1971: War on Drugs officially began under President Nixon • Passing of harsher drug laws increased public concern. The general public didn’t notice how bad drugs were until they noticed that the government was paying so much mind to it 1980’s • Rise in cocaine use (related to the high-class) • Development of crack, a cheap, smokable form of cocaine (related to the lower-class) • Same effects, but do to classism and racism, crack was seen as worse • Several laws passed un Reagan (more laws against crack than cocaine) • More people began to get incarcerated for drug use 1980s-1990s • Numerous laws passed o Most involved supply reduction • Comprehensive Crime Control Act of 1984 o Broadened asset forfeiture laws • “Just Say No” – DARE • A series of public service announcements: “Don’t Do Drugs” • Department of Defense turned away from treatment (for veterans etc.) • Goal: Detection and enforcements • Any use of drugs constitutes abuse and means instance military discharge


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