General Psychology prologue
General Psychology prologue 1013
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This 8 page Class Notes was uploaded by Jesse Watkins on Sunday August 28, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 1013 at Mississippi State University taught by Rebecca Armstrong in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 210 views. For similar materials see General Psychology in Psychology (PSYC) at Mississippi State University.
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Date Created: 08/28/16
Prologue –The Story of Psychology 1879. Psychology was “born” or really accepted as a science. 1879-1920. Mental Process was the primary focus for many psychologists (focus on mental life). 1920-1960. Psychology moves its focus towards behavior. 1960-present day. Modern psychologists focus on both behavior and mental process. Psychologists vs. Psychiatrists Psychologists cannot Psychiatrists are doctors prescribe meds first over being psychologists Primary focus of chapter focusses on the growth and change of Psychology as a science. I. What is Psychology? Psychology: Scientific study of behavior and mental process, the definition is based on contemporary psychology Psychology derives from the interest in the lifelong question “who are we.” We use psychology to understand what makes up who we are. A. Psychological Science is Born 300 BCE Aristotle began to ask the questions about: Learning, memory, motivation, emotion, perception, and personality Aristotle’s hypothesis: emotion and personality comes from our hearts. 300 BCE Should be marked as the first times the fundamentals of psychology was pondered. 1. Psychology’s First Laboratory Dec. 1879. Wilhelm Wundt initiated the first tests in psychology’s history. Results: tested reaction times. When told to click when the heard the sound…..reaction time was a tenth of a second When told to click upon comprehension of the noise….reaction was two-tenths of a second. Also 1879. Wundt creates very first psychology lab. 2. Structuralism and Functionalism Psycholo Stucturalis Functionali m gy 1880- sm 1920 Structuralism Created by Wilhelm Wundt and Titchener. Primary question: What made up the mind? 1) Analyze conscious processes into their basic elements, sensations, feelings, etc 2) Discover how the elements become connected? Feelings into actions 3) Specify the laws of behavior Used Introspection, the process of looking inward, and basically relying on patient’s honesty. Introspection used verbal, well-educated subjects: results proved to be too wild. Titchener: believed that he could discover the structure of the mind such as scientists had developed for matter. Functionalism Still pre ‘20’s, and the primary question was how does the mind produce productive actions? William James started Functionalism James thought the best option was to analyze the most developed parts of the so mind. Derived from Charles Darwin’s evolutionary theory. James was the first to understand consciousness, but defined it as how we define the past, analyze the present, and plan the future. Also, James thought that modern functions were how humans had adapted. Henry Holt offered James a contract for the first book written over psychology 1890. Principles of Psychology was published 3. First Women in Psychology Mary Whiton Calkins and Margaret Floy Washburn Calkins: was admitted by William James as a grad student at Harvard 1905. She became the first female of president of the American Psychological Association (APA). Washburn: was the first female to receive a psychology Ph.D. 1921. became the second female APA president. Titchener still banned them from the organization of experimental psychology. B. Psychological Science Develops Psychology changes from Introspection of the pre 20’s. Becomes behavior focused. 1. Behaviorism John B Watson and B. F. Skinner Fuck introspection, they believed psychology is actually the study of what we can observe in behaviors. The science was based on analyzing/observing Able to analyze the reactions of subjects and forming predictions from the results. Became the main sect in psychology until roughly 1960. 2. Freudian Psychology Sigmund Freud focused on unconscious mind, determined that sexual tension exists everywhere but the mind suppresses most of the tension. How do childhood memories affect us now? 3. Humanistic Psychology Carl Rogers and Abraham Maslow Rogers and Maslow thought the other schools of thought were too finite in their range of coverage. They focus on how the current stimuli can inhibit/prohibit growth Most importantly it was hypothesized that humans have needs for love and acceptance. 4. Cognitive Revolution Study that focused back on the mental process Now focused on how the mind retained information Gave a new way to deal with disorders like depression. Cognitive Psychology + Neuroscience Together the field of study focused on our mental activity and how the brain operates. 5. Modern Definition of Psychology Modern Psychology combines the field of study: mental processes + behavior Behavior: Anything observable: sweating, blinking, laughing Mental process: Anything derived from behavior: dreams, perceptions, etc The science aspect of psychology means nothing is complete. Ask and Answer questions. Function/Structure Cognitive Psychology Behavioralism/Freudian Humanistic C. Contemporary Psychology 1978. First psychology school established Philosophy & Biology comes together to make Psychology Grown to a global field that covers more aspects than the original two fields 1. Evolutionary Psychology and Behavior Genetics The greatest psychology question: Nature or Nurture? Plato: Nature, everything was based on genetics (inborn) Aristotle: Nurture, everything comes from the world around us. 1600. John Locke (external) vs. Rene Descartes Descartes’ studies and beliefs attracted attention from Charles Darwin. 1831. Darwin begins traveling the world, documenting and analyzing different animals 1859. Darwin publishes, On the Origin of Species The book launches Natural Selection theory. Explains: structure an owls silent flight vs behavior human’s emotions Evolutionary Psychology focusses on questions of human likeness based on evolutionary history Behavior genetics: are differences in genders genetic or social? 2. Cross-Cultural and Gender Psychology Culture- ideas and behaviors that are shared and passed down. Culture can determine different behaviors such as maintaining eye contact, however, no matter what language you speak a smile is universal. Cross-culture psychology analyzes the similarities and differences across the world and other cultures. Gender: the genetics involved with gender have been connected with addiction, depression, and perception of emotion. Despite the many differences found by psychologists, men and women are still very much similar. Understanding the differences in gender is the best way for one to avoid fights with the opposite gender. 3. Positive Psychology Martin Seligman In recent years some have called on a change in research, Most of psychology up until C. 2000 was focused on dealing with troubles; however, a new field focused on “the good life” 4. Psychology’s Three Main Levels of Analysis Biopsychosocial. Biological: gender, genetics, age, etc Social: peer pressure, conformity, etc Psychological: illness, self-concept Levels of Analysis; explaining events through different perspectives. All layers create the Biopsychosocial approach. All layers are differing and yet are simultaneously complimentary. Each differing opinion while finite is helpful. Like looking on a 2D plane, but getting enough differing perspectives to create a 3D image. 5. Psychology’s Subfields 6. Improve Your Retention -----and Your Grades
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