KIN 300 Scott week 1 notes - Intro to Biomechanics
KIN 300 Scott week 1 notes - Intro to Biomechanics KIN 300
Long Beach State
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Natalie Wong on Sunday August 28, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to KIN 300 at California State University Long Beach taught by Kristen Scott in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 5 views. For similar materials see Biomechanics in Kinesiology at California State University Long Beach.
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Date Created: 08/28/16
KIN 300: Week 1 – 8/22/16 Natalie Wong “Intro: What is Biomechanics?” ***Notes derived from Prof. Scott’s lecture PPT. I. What is Biomechanics? a. Biomechanics = the study of forces applied to daily living activities/movements as performed by living organisms b. This class focuses on Sport and Exercise Biomech. but there are a variety of other areas of study within the realm of biomech. Orthopedic Biomechanics Cellular Biomechanics Tissue Biomechanics Applied Biomecanics c. We study biomechanics to understand how quantifiable, mechanical characteristics affect performance of tasks d. Sport and Exercise Biomechanics = application of mechanical principles as applied to sports and exercise Goals: o Improve performance o Prevent injury o Improve reabilitation II. How does biomechanics improve performance? Reduce injury? a. Improve performance Technique Improvement o Analysis of technique to optimize a skill o Ex: high jump – looking at how the technique/manner in which the athlete performs the high jump has changed over the years to create a higher jump/optimize the skill Equipment Improvement o Optimize performance by modifying equipment, considering materials, aerodynamics, design modifications, advantages created by modifications o Ex: running shoes – analyzing the pressures created by the foot during running (or any other physical activity) to create a safer/comfortable surface with the foot, to mimic the natural flexibility, or rigidity, of the foot, and/or to optimize phases in gait analysis Training Improvement o Better technique leads to more efficient training practices based on the goals of the activity o Goals = strength, endurance, or flexibility o Muscle specificity training to accomplish goals of the activity b. Reduce Injury Technique Improvement o Improved technique and proper execution of an activity can decrease the risk of injury Equipment Improvement o Protective coverings/pads in sports, or equipment that better fits the natural tendencies of the body KIN 300: Week 1 – 8/22/16 Natalie Wong o Ex: Concussion helmets in football – improvement in equipment prevents the frequency of athlete concussion occurrence Training Improvement o Ties back to improving technique and the ways in which an athlete goes about improving their technique III. Kinesiology vs. Biomechanics (human mvmt anal table here) a. Kinesiology = overlying, allencompassing term that includes all forms of studying movement of the human body (physiology, anatomy, motor control/learning/development, and mechanics b. Biomechanics = subcategory of Kinesiology in which there is an application of mechanical principles to living organisms IV. History of Biomechanics a. Biomechanical ideas began with Aristotle and da Vinci, but were not labeled “biomechanics” b. Late 1800s – biomechanics application and use of first term kinesiology in the US c. ***1960s – growing scientific community for biomechanics d. 1970s – rapid expansion and branching of areas of study within the broader category of biomecthnics e. late 20 century – greater expansion and established distinguishing of biomechanics as a subcategory of kinesiology f. Technology is the driving force of the expansion and evolution of biomechanics as tech improves, our understanding of the human body and means of quantifying specific measurements also improves V. What makes a biomechanist? a. Biomechanist = profession of many hats Engineer, physicist, anatomist, physiologist, neuroscientist/motor control, computer scientist, electritionist, etc Primary focuses/highest proficiency = physicist and anatomist VI. What is Mechanics? a. Mechanics = analysis of force applied to objects and the result/change produced by that force b. Key definitions: Statics vs Dynamics o Statics = no change in acceleration; something with constant force or no force o Dynamics = change in acceleration; something in which force is increasing or decreasing from the initial force Kinematics vs Kinetics o Kinematics = description of an object’s motion (Ex: position, velocity, acceleration) Linear (in line/straight) Position, velocity, acceleration Angular (rotational) Position, velocity, acceleration o Kinetics = forces that cause the motion of an object (Ex: gravity, friction, applied force) KIN 300: Week 1 – 8/22/16 Natalie Wong Linear Force Angular Torque VII. Types of problems a. Qualitative = nonnumeric method of describing movement Ex: defining plane or axis of movement, describing action – hip flexion, shoulder external rotation, etc b. Quantitative = numeric method of describing movement Ex: shoulder abduction at 70, running at a velocity of 2m/s Measured with tools and special equipment o Force plates o EMG o Plantar pressure