New User Special Price Expires in

Let's log you in.

Sign in with Facebook


Don't have a StudySoup account? Create one here!


Create a StudySoup account

Be part of our community, it's free to join!

Sign up with Facebook


Create your account
By creating an account you agree to StudySoup's terms and conditions and privacy policy

Already have a StudySoup account? Login here

Anatomy and Physiology I

by: Makenzie Ehrsam

Anatomy and Physiology I Biology 2010-003

Makenzie Ehrsam
View Full Document for 0 Karma

View Full Document


Unlock These Notes for FREE

Enter your email below and we will instantly email you these Notes for Human A&P I

(Limited time offer)

Unlock Notes

Already have a StudySoup account? Login here

Unlock FREE Class Notes

Enter your email below to receive Human A&P I notes

Everyone needs better class notes. Enter your email and we will send you notes for this class for free.

Unlock FREE notes

About this Document

These notes cover the entire chapter of Major Themes of Anatomy and Physiology from the textbook "Anatomy and Physiology: The Unity of Form and Function" - 7th edition by Saladin.
Human A&P I
Dr. Amy Jetton
Class Notes
anatomy, Physiology




Popular in Human A&P I

Popular in A&P, Biology

This 8 page Class Notes was uploaded by Makenzie Ehrsam on Sunday August 28, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Biology 2010-003 at Middle Tennessee State University taught by Dr. Amy Jetton in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 7 views. For similar materials see Human A&P I in A&P, Biology at Middle Tennessee State University.


Reviews for Anatomy and Physiology I


Report this Material


What is Karma?


Karma is the currency of StudySoup.

You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!

Date Created: 08/28/16
Anatomy and Physiology: ­Anatomy: study of structure. ­Physiology: Study of function. ­Physiology lends meaning to anatomy and anatomy is what makes physiology. ­Several ways to examine structure of human body. Simplest to do is inspection. ­Inspection: looking at body's appearance. ­Auscultation: listening to natural sounds made by the body.  ­Percussion: examiner taps on body, feels for abnormal resistance, and listens to emitted sound  for signs of abnormalities (ex: pockets of fluid or air). ­Dissection: carefully cutting and separating tissues to reveal their relationships. ­Anatomy and dissection both mean cutting apart. Was called "anatomizing" until 19   th century. ­Cadaver: dead human body. ­Comparative anatomy: study of multiple species to examine similarities/differences and  analyze evolutionary trends. ­Exploratory surgery: opening body to find issue and the cause and find a way to fix it. ­Most exploratory surgeries have been replaced with medical imaging techniques. ­Medical imaging: viewing inside body without surgery. ­Radiology: branch of medicine concerned with imaging. ­Gross anatomy: structures that can be seen with naked eye. ­Histology: taking tissue specimens, slicing and staining them in order to view under a  microscope. ­Histopathology: microscopic examination of tissues for signs of disease. ­Cytology: study of cells. ­Ultrastructure: fine detail revealed by electron microscope. ­Physiology uses methods of experimental science. ­Subdisciplines are many: ­Neurophysiology: physiology of nervous system. ­Endocrinology: physiology of hormones. ­Pathophysiology: mechanisms of disease. ­Lack of human experimentation has made us more knowledgeable about bodily functions  through comparative physiology. ­Comparative physiology: study of how different species have solved problems of life (water  balance, respiration, reproduction). ­Basis for development of new drugs/medical procedures. ­Hippocrates is the "father of medicine." ­Developed code of ethics for physicians that is still in use today called the Hippocratic  Oath. ­Urged physicians to stop attributing disease to activities of gods and demons and seek  natural causes. ­Believed disease and other natural events had supernatural causes (theologi) or natural  ones, called physici of physilogi. ­Argued complex structures are built from smaller variety of simple components. ­Claudius Galen: physician to Roman gladiators. Wrote most influential textbook of era. ­Cadaver dissection prohibited during era. Limited to dissecting pigs, monkeys, etc.  Human anatomy became a guessing game. ­State of medical science varied among the different religious cultures in middle ages.  ­Moses ben Maimon (Maimonides): Born in Spain, fled to Egypt at 24 to escape anti­Semitic  persecution. Served remainder of life as physician to Saladin court.  ­Wrote ten influential med books and treatises on specific diseases. ­Ibn Sina (Avicenna): studied Galen and Aristotle and combined their findings with own  discoveries, and questioned authority when evidence required it. ­Textbook "The Canon of Medicine" was leading authority in European medical schools  for 500+ years. ­Little influence on western thought and practice was Chinese medicine, but recently evolved. ­Modern western medicine began around 16  century. ­Andreas Vesalius (anatomist): taught anatomy (1514­1564). ­During this time, allowed to dissect cadavers. ­Still not common practice because it was "unpleasant" due to putrefying fumes. ­Most professors sat and read while a barber surgeon dissected the body/ies. Vesalius  did the opposite. Started doing the dissections himself. While doing so, pointed out that Galens  descriptions of human anatomy were incorrect. ­Vesalius was first to publish the correct illustrations. ­First to publish and atlas of Anatomy, "De Humani Corpor Fabrica (On the Structure of  the Human Body) in 1543. ­William Harvey (1578­1657): remembered for his studies of blood circulation and his book  "De motu cortdis (On the Motion of the Heart). ­He and Michael Servetus first western scientists to realize blood must continuously  circulate through body. ­Ridiculed Galens for his theory, now we know he was right. ­Harvey's contributions represent the birth of experimental physiology. ­Robert Hooke (1635­1701): designed scientific instruments (ex: compound microscope). ­Compound Microscope: lens at each end, objective near specimen (produces initial magnified  image), and an ocular lens (eyepiece) near observers eye, magnifying image more. ­Improved optics and invented several features found in microscopes today. ­Stage, illuminator, coarse and fine focus control. ­Observed thin shavings of cork. Recognized that the cork consisted of small boxes and  called them cellulae (little cells). ­Later observed that these cellulae were filled with juice. ­Published first comprehensive book of microscopy, "Micrographia." ­Antony van Leeuwenhoek (1632­1723): Invented a simple microscope that had a single lens.  Originally made to examine weave of fabrics. ­Much greater magnification than Hookes ­Two types had some type of error, blurry edges and rainbow like distortions. Errors needed to  be corrected before becoming widely used. ­19  century, German inventors improved compound microscopes. Added the condenser and  developing superior optics. ­Matthias Schleiden and Theodor Schwann concluded that ALL organisms are composed of  cells.  ­Became first tenet to cell theory. ­Cell theory: all functions of body interpreted as effects of cellular activity. ­Francis Bacon and Rene Descartes saw science as systematic enterprise with x amount of  possibilities for human health. ­Detested those that debated ancient philosophy without creating anything new. ­Bacon against biased thinking for wanted for more objectivity. ­Wanted for science to become an accepted field and conducted by international  community or scholars. ­French and English governments est. Academies of science. ­Scientific method: less to observational procedures than to certain habits of disciplined  creativity, observation, thinking, and accurate analysis of observations and conclusions. ­Inductive Method: process of making numerous observations until one feels confident in  generalizations and predictions. ­Hypothetic: deductive method how most physiological knowledge was obtained. ­Hypothesis: educated guess/possible answer to question. ­Must be consistent with what is already known. ­Capable of being tested and falsified with evidence. ­Falsifiability: if we claim something scientifically true, must be able to specify evidence it  would take to prove it wrong. ­If cannot be proven wrong, not scientific. ­Experimental designs include; sample size, controls, psychosomatic effects, experimenter  bias, statistical testing. ­Sample size: number of objects used in study. ­Controls: ­Control groups: subjects that are much like the treatment group as possible except with  respect to variable being tested. ­Psychosomatic effects: effects of subjects state of mind on his/her physiology. ­Unwanted effects on experimental results can occur if we do NOT control them. ­Placebo: substance with no significant physiological effect on body. ­Experimenter bias: experimenters want certain results that their biases can affect interpretation of data. ­Double blind method: neither subject who is being given the treatment nor the person  giving it/recording results knows if subject is receiving experimental or placebo. ­Statistical testing: tests that can be applied to data. ­Peer review: critical evaluation by other experts in that field. ­Scientific fact: info. that CAN be independently verified by trained persons. ­Law of Nature: generalization about predictable ways in which matter and energy behave. ­Theory: explanatory statement or set of statements derived from facts, laws, and confirmed  hypotheses. ­Purpose of theory is to concisely summarize what we already know, and also suggest  directions for further study and help predict what findings should be if theory is correct. ­Law of nature is a description; laws do not govern universe, but describe it. ­Charles Darwin (1802­1882): explained how species originate and change through time  (natural selection). ­Evolutions: change in genetic makeup of a population of organisms. ­Natural selection: principal theory of how evolution works. ­States that some individuals within a species have hereditary advantages over their  competitors. ­Selection pressures: natural forces promote reproductive success of some individuals more  than others. ­Includes: climate, predators, disease, competition, availability of food. ­Adaptations: features of anatomy, physiology, and behavior that have evolved in response to  selection pressures and enable organism to cope with challenges of its environments. ­Model: animal species or strain selected for research on particular problem. ­Arboreal: pertaining to trees. ­Opposable thumbs made hands prehensile. ­Prehensile: means the ability to grasp. ­Stereoscopic: depth perception. ­Color vision rare among mammals. ­Humans do not evolve from monkeys or apes. We do share common ancestors. ­Bipedalism: standing and walking on two legs made easier. ­Est. 4 million + years ago. ­As skeleton and muscles became adapted to this, brain volume increased. ­Most of oldest bipedal primates classified in genus Australop theous. ­2.5 million years ago, hominids appeared with taller stature, greater brain volumes, stone tools, and speech. ­Earliest members of genus homo. ­1.8 million years ago, Homo erectus migrated from Africa to Asia. ­Anatomically homosapiens originated in Afriac 200,000 years ago. ­Evolutionary medicine: analyzes how human disease and dysfunctions can be traced to  different between artificial environment and prehistoric environment. ­Humans analogous hierary of complexity: ­Organism made up of organ systems. ­Organ systems made up of organs. ­Organs made up of tissues. ­Tissues made up of cells. ­Cells composed (partly) of organelles. ­Organelles made up of molecules. ­Molecules made up of atoms. ­Organism = complete individual. ­Organ system: group of organs with different functions. ­Human body has 11 organ systems: ­Integumentary ­Skeletal ­Muscular ­Nervous ­Endocrine ­Circulatory ­Lymphatic ­Respiratory ­Urinary ­Digestive ­Reproductive systems ­Organ: structure composed of 2 or more tissue types that work together to carry out a function. ­Tissue: mass of similar cells and cell products that forms discreete region of an organ and has  certain function. ­body composed of 4 primary tissue; epithelial, connective, nervous, and muscular tissue. ­Cells: smallest units of organism that carry out basic functions of life. ­Enclosed in plasma membrane of lipids and proteins. ­Organelles: microscopic structures in cell that carries out individual functions. ­Organelles and cellular components composed of molecules. ­Largest molecules: macromolecules. ­Molecule: composed of at least 2 atoms. ­Atoms: smallest particles with unique chemical identities. ­Reductionism: theory that large, complex system can be understood by studying simpler  components. ­Holism: complementary theory that there are "emergent properties" of whole organism that  can't be predicted from properties that distinguish living from nonliving things. ­organization: living things have higher level of organization than nonliving. ­Cellular composition: living matter compartmentalized into one or more cells. ­Metabolism: sum of all internal chemical change. ­Consists of 2 classes of reactions; anabolism and catabolism. ­Anabolism: complex molecules synthesized from simpler ones. ­Catabolism: complex molecules broken down into simpler ones. ­Metabolism produces chemical wastes. ­Metabolism requires excretion. ­Excretion: separation of wastes from tissues and elimination from body. ­responsiveness and movement: ability of organisms to sense and react to stimuli  (changes in environments). ­Homeostasis: organism maintains relatively stable internal conditions. ­Development: any change in form or function over lifetime of organism. ­Most organisms involves 2 major process:  ­Differentiation: transformation of cells with no specialized function into  cells that have ONE task. ­Growth: increase in size. Growth occurs through chemical change. ­Reproduction: living organisms can produce copies of themselves. ­Evolution: living species exhibit genetic change from generation­generation and evolve. ­Occurs between mutations. ­Mutations: changes in DNA structure. ­Physiological variables differ with; sex, age, weight, diet, degree of physical activity,  environment, etc. ­Homeostasis: body's ability to detect change, activate mechanisms that oppose it, and maintain  stable internal conditions. ­Claude Bernard: observed internal conditions of body that remain constant even with external  conditions vary greatly. ­Walter Cannon: coined term homeostasis for internal stability.  ­Internal conditions do not remain constant all the time, but do fluctuate within a certain range. ­Dynamic equilibrium: balanced change. ­Certain set point (average value for given variable) body conditions fluctuate around this set point. ­Negative feedback: process that the body senses change and activates mechanisms that negate  or reverse it.  ­Key mechanism for maintaining health. ­Feedback loops: feedback mechanisms alter original changes that triggered them. ­Vasodilation: widening of blood vessels. ­Blood vessels of skin dilate, warm blood flows closer to body surface and loses heat to  surrounding air. ­"Thermostat" is a group of nerve cells in base of brain that monitor temperature of blood. ­Vasoconstriction: narrowing of blood vessels in skin, serves to retain warm blood deeper in   body and reduce heat loss.  ­If not enough, brain activates shivering. Muscle tremors generate heat. ­Baroreceptors: detects falling blood pressure. ­Baroreceptors are sensory nerve endings found in large arteries near heart. ­Transmit nerve signals to brainstem where cardiac center regulates heart rate. ­Cardiac center in response sends nerve signals to heart, speeding it up. ­Makes BP rise and restore to normal homeostasis. ­Baroreflex: correction of BP. ­Illustrates 3 common components of feedback loop: ­Receptor ­Integrating center ­Effector ­Receptor: structure that senses change in body. ­Integrating (control) center: mechanism that processes information and relates it to other  available information and in turn responds appropriately. ­Effector: cell/organ that carries out final corrective action. ­Positive feedback: self­amplifying cycle where a physiological change leads to greater change  in same direction, rather than producing corrective effects of negative feedback. ­Normal way of producing rapid change. ­Example of positive feedback: a woman giving birth. ­Head of fetus pushes on cervix. ­Stimulates nerve endings. ­Nerve signals go to brain, stimulates pituitary gland to secrete hormone oxytocin. ­Oxytocin travels through blood and stimulates uterus to contract. ­Pushes fetus down. ­Positive feedback loop is repeated until fetus is delivered, as well as the  contractions will the intensity of contractions. ­Positive feedback CAN be harmful. Can cause body to quickly change internal state farther  from its set point. ­Matter and energy flow DOWN gradients. ­Gradient: difference in chemical concentration, electrical charge, physical pressure,  temperature, or other variables between one point and another. ­Down gradient: if matter/energy moves from point where variable has higher valve to point  with lower value. ­Movement in opposite direction is up the gradient (obvious, but important). ­Pressure gradient: from high pressure point to low pressure point. ­Concentration gradients: chemicals flow down these. ­Water flows through cell membranes and epithelia by osmosis. ­Electrical gradients: where charged particles flow down. ­Thermal gradient: where heat flows down. ­Medical terms formed from 1,200 Greek and Latin roots. ­Eponyms: terms derived from names of people. Not beneficial when determining the structure  or function of something. 


Buy Material

Are you sure you want to buy this material for

0 Karma

Buy Material

BOOM! Enjoy Your Free Notes!

We've added these Notes to your profile, click here to view them now.


You're already Subscribed!

Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'

Why people love StudySoup

Jim McGreen Ohio University

"Knowing I can count on the Elite Notetaker in my class allows me to focus on what the professor is saying instead of just scribbling notes the whole time and falling behind."

Janice Dongeun University of Washington

"I used the money I made selling my notes & study guides to pay for spring break in Olympia, Washington...which was Sweet!"

Bentley McCaw University of Florida

"I was shooting for a perfect 4.0 GPA this semester. Having StudySoup as a study aid was critical to helping me achieve my goal...and I nailed it!"

Parker Thompson 500 Startups

"It's a great way for students to improve their educational experience and it seemed like a product that everybody wants, so all the people participating are winning."

Become an Elite Notetaker and start selling your notes online!

Refund Policy


All subscriptions to StudySoup are paid in full at the time of subscribing. To change your credit card information or to cancel your subscription, go to "Edit Settings". All credit card information will be available there. If you should decide to cancel your subscription, it will continue to be valid until the next payment period, as all payments for the current period were made in advance. For special circumstances, please email


StudySoup has more than 1 million course-specific study resources to help students study smarter. If you’re having trouble finding what you’re looking for, our customer support team can help you find what you need! Feel free to contact them here:

Recurring Subscriptions: If you have canceled your recurring subscription on the day of renewal and have not downloaded any documents, you may request a refund by submitting an email to

Satisfaction Guarantee: If you’re not satisfied with your subscription, you can contact us for further help. Contact must be made within 3 business days of your subscription purchase and your refund request will be subject for review.

Please Note: Refunds can never be provided more than 30 days after the initial purchase date regardless of your activity on the site.