Organic Chemistry week 1 notes
Organic Chemistry week 1 notes Chem 2400
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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Brooke Martin on Sunday August 28, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Chem 2400 at Georgia State University taught by Reber in Fall 2017. Since its upload, it has received 147 views. For similar materials see Organic Chemistry 1 in Chemistry at Georgia State University.
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Date Created: 08/28/16
Organic Chemistry MWF 12:00 PM Week 1 Notes August 28, 2016 CARBON Organic chemistry: study of carbon Group 4 element 4 bonds Catenations: bond with itself (chains and rings) ATOM Nucleus: protons + neutrons Electron cloud: surrounds nucleus ORBITALS Shell Max Electrons held S 2 P 6 D 10 F 14 In order of increasing energy: 1s²→2s²→2p⁶→3s²→3p⁶→4s²→3d¹⁰ *notice how the 4s orbital is lower in energy than the 3d orbital HYBRID ORBITALS SP³ o 1 s orbital + 3 p orbitals = 4 sp³ orbitals o Single bond o Shape: (0 lone pairs) 109⁰ tetrahedral (1 lone pair) 107⁰ trigonal pyramidal (2 lone pairs) 120⁰ bent SP² o 1 s orbital + 2 p orbitals = 3 sp² orbitals o Double bond o Shape (0 lone pairs) 120⁰ trigonal planar (1 lone pair) less than 120⁰ bent SP o 1 s orbital + 1 p orbital = 2 sp orbitals o Triple bond o 180⁰ linear BONDS Single: σ Double: σ + π Triple: σ + 2π DIPOLE MOMENT Example H²O O⁻ H⁺ H⁺ Arrow goes toward negative charge SKELETAL STRUCTURE RULES 1. Carbon at every indention and every limb 2. Hydrogen on carbon not shown 3. Show all other atoms hydrogens a. Ex) NH₂ FORMAL CHARGE Group # - nonbonding electrons – half of shared electrons
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