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Organic Chemistry week 1 notes

by: Brooke Martin

Organic Chemistry week 1 notes Chem 2400

Marketplace > Georgia State University > Chemistry > Chem 2400 > Organic Chemistry week 1 notes
Brooke Martin
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About this Document

hybrid orbitals, bonding, and skeletal structures
Organic Chemistry 1
Class Notes
Chemistry, Organic Chemistry




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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Brooke Martin on Sunday August 28, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Chem 2400 at Georgia State University taught by Reber in Fall 2017. Since its upload, it has received 147 views. For similar materials see Organic Chemistry 1 in Chemistry at Georgia State University.


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Date Created: 08/28/16
Organic Chemistry MWF 12:00 PM Week 1 Notes August 28, 2016 CARBON  Organic chemistry: study of carbon  Group 4 element  4 bonds  Catenations: bond with itself (chains and rings) ATOM  Nucleus: protons + neutrons  Electron cloud: surrounds nucleus ORBITALS Shell Max Electrons held S 2 P 6 D 10 F 14 In order of increasing energy: 1s²→2s²→2p⁶→3s²→3p⁶→4s²→3d¹⁰ *notice how the 4s orbital is lower in energy than the 3d orbital HYBRID ORBITALS  SP³ o 1 s orbital + 3 p orbitals = 4 sp³ orbitals o Single bond o Shape:  (0 lone pairs) 109⁰ tetrahedral  (1 lone pair) 107⁰ trigonal pyramidal  (2 lone pairs) 120⁰ bent  SP² o 1 s orbital + 2 p orbitals = 3 sp² orbitals o Double bond o Shape  (0 lone pairs) 120⁰ trigonal planar  (1 lone pair) less than 120⁰ bent  SP o 1 s orbital + 1 p orbital = 2 sp orbitals o Triple bond o 180⁰ linear BONDS  Single: σ  Double: σ + π  Triple: σ + 2π DIPOLE MOMENT  Example H²O O⁻ H⁺ H⁺ Arrow goes toward negative charge SKELETAL STRUCTURE RULES 1. Carbon at every indention and every limb 2. Hydrogen on carbon not shown 3. Show all other atoms hydrogens a. Ex) NH₂ FORMAL CHARGE  Group # - nonbonding electrons – half of shared electrons


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