Experimental Psychology Week 1
Experimental Psychology Week 1 PSYC 266 - 05
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by emmy_rose4267 on Sunday August 28, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC 266 - 05 at Truman State University taught by Ashley Ramsey in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 23 views. For similar materials see Experimental Psychology in Psychology (PSYC) at Truman State University.
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Date Created: 08/28/16
Experimental Psychology 8/24 Scientific Methods and Research Ethics The scientific method 1) Purpose: state the problem 2) Research: find out about the topic 3) Hypothesis: predict the outcome to the problem 4) Experiment: develop a procedure to test the hypothesis 5) Analysis: record the results of the experiment 6) Conclusion: compare the hypothesis to the experiment’s conclusion Causation does not equal correlation. Laws vs Theories Law: consists of statements generally expressed as equations that have overwhelming empirical support Theory: a set of related statements used to explain and predict phenomena Principle of parsimony: we prefer the simplest useful explanation Objectives of Science 1) Describe: observed characteristics of behaviors 2) Prediction: knowing in advance when behaviors occur 3) Explanation: knowledge of conditions produce a behavior 4) Control: use of scientific knowledge to influence behavior Some tools we use are… Measurement Experimentation Observation Types of Research Applied Research: real world problems, ex) how to improve student graduation rates Basic Research: tests theories and explains psychological phenomena, ex) role of chemical in rodents Psychology vs Pseudosciences Pseudoscience: any field of study that gives the appearance of being scientific, but has no true scientific basis and has not been confirmed using the scientific method Exs) astronomy, clairvoyance, fortune telling 8/26 Research Ethics Framework of values within which we conduct research IRBs: institutional review boards are composed of people who evaluate research proposals to make sure they follow ethical standards “Minimal harm” means you are at no higher risk of harm than if you did not participate “At risk” means a higher risk of harm participating than if you did not Informed consent: agreement in writing to participation after details of the experiment have been explained Deception can be used if within ethical guidelines and participants have the right to refuse at any time Debriefing: explaining true nature and purpose of the study after it is over including explaining all deception used Confederate: acts they are part of the study while they are working with the researcher Anonymity: no identifying someone by their name Confidentiality: data is secured and only used for purpose explained to the subject Welfare of animals IACUC evaluate animal research before it is conducted Sentient species ( those that can feel pain and suffer) have equal value and rights to humans Scientific Fraud Scientific Fraud: involves fabricating data Researchers may do this to better reputation, for tenure, promotion, etc. Line of defense from peer review process which finds things exaggerated or false Plagiarism: representing someone else’s work or ideas as your own Experimental vs Nonexperimental Research What makes something experimental: manipulate independent variable before the study actually starts Independent and dependent variables must have 2 levels in experiment Nonexperimental: means no random assignment but are used when experiments are not ethical or possible, where we want to test hypotheses in realistic conditions