Biology I Notes 3.1-3.3 USF
Biology I Notes 3.1-3.3 USF BSC 2010
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Marla Notetaker on Sunday August 28, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BSC 2010 at University of South Florida taught by Dr. Eric M. Sikorski in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 62 views. For similar materials see Biology I Cellular Processes in Biology at University of South Florida.
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Date Created: 08/28/16
Chapter 3 USF Biology I – Water and Life Yellow: Vocabulary GREE: Key concepts Concept 3.1 – Polar covalent bonds in water molecules result in hydrogen bonding Polar covalent bonds: electrons of the covalent bonds spend more time closer to Oxygen than Hydrogen Polar molecule: overall charge of the molecule is unequally distributed *Negative () charge of the negative is attracted to the positive (+) charge of the hydrogen atom of the other H2O molecule, forming Hydrogen Bonding* Concept 3.2 – Four emergent properties of water contribute to earth’s suitability for life I. Cohesion of Water Molecules Cohesion: hydrogen bonds make to water molecules stick to EACH OTHER Because of this water can be “transported and dissolved nutrients against gravity in plants” (p. 45). Meaning the water on top can “pull” at the water on the bottom and be carried upwards. Adhesion: “clinging one substance to another” (p. 45) allowing the water to cling to the walls of the plant and resist the pull of gravity downwards. Surface Tension: because cohesion water molecules stick to one another, and the molecules on the surface also create bonds with the molecules in the air, creating a very tight film over the water, which “is measured of how difficult it is to stretch or break the surface of a liquid. II. Moderation of Temperature by Water “Water moderates air temperature by absorbing heat from air that is warmer and releasing the stored heat to air that is cooler” (p. 46) a. Temperature and Heat Kinetic Energy: movement energy, which all atoms have because they are constantly moving. Thermal energy: “random movement of atoms or molecules,” which in part is related to the object’s volume Temperature: AVERAGE kinetic energy of molecules in a body of matter, regardless of their volume. *Example in the book: a coffee maker when it heats up the water has more temperature because the molecules in the water are muving much faster, however when compared to a pool that is much larger the bool is also heating up and has MORE THERMAL ENERGY because it has a larger mass of water* * Energy only moves from HOT to COLD until = in temp” Heat: Thermal energy in transfer from one body of matter to another. Calorie (cal): amount of heat it takes to raise the temperature of 1g of water by 1 *C …. Also is the amount of heat a 1g of water releases when it cools 1 *C *0.239 cal = 1 J (joule) ……………. 1 cal = 4.184 J (joules)* b. Water’s High Specific Heat Specific heat: amount of heat that must be absorbed or lost for 1g of the substance to change its temperature by 1*C *Can also be perceived as “a measure of how well a substance resists changing its temperature when it absorbs or releases heat* * The High Specific heat of water is mainly does to hydrogen bonding because it takes a lot of energy to break those bonds* c. Evaporative Cooling Vaporization (or evaporation) occurs when the molecules move fast enough to break the bonds that attach them to other molecules, this can happen even at room temperature. Heat of Vaporization: quantity of heat a liquid must absorb for 1g of it to be converted from a liquid to a gas (p. 47) Evaporative cooling: when hotter molecules evaporate they leave behind cooler molecules in the surface * This contributes to the ability of water of temperature regulation* III. Floating of Ice on Liquid Water Water EXPANDS when it turns into ice When water drops to 0*C (32 F*) the Hydrogen Bonds are stretched at “arm length” because the molecules are moving too slow…ice becomes about 10% less dense than water in liquid form IV. Water: The Solvent of Life Solution: the liquid that is a complete homogeneous (not different at sight) mixture of 2 or more substances Solvent: dissolving agent (what you use to dissolve) Solute: the substance that you dissolve Aqueous solution: when the solute is dissolved into water Hydration Shell: when a solute dissolves into water the hydrogen positive (+) charge in the water is attracted to the negative () ions of the solute and they (hydrogen molecules) form a cloud around the – ion to isolate it. a. Hydrophilic and Hydrophobic Substances Hydrophilic: Substances that LIKE water (from Greek hydro, whater, and philos, loving) * Some molecules are so large they do not dissolve…. Or cotton doesn’t either because it’s a cellulose product with some positive (+) and negative () charges to it* Hydrophobic: repel, hate, don’t get along, with water b. Solute Concentrations in Aqueous Solutions Molecular Mass: sum of the masses of all the molecules in the compound 23 *1 mole = 6.022 x 10 * the complete explanation for this first point is on page 50, left column, 2 p. Molarity: the number of moles of solute per liter of solution Concept 3.3 Acidic and basic conditions affect living organisms Sometimes Hydrogen separates from their oxygen and move to ANOTHER oxygen, creating ions (molecules with unbalanced charges, + or ) + Hydrogen ion (H ): single hydrogen ion with no electrons Hydroxide ion (OH ): one oxygen with one hydrogen Hydronium ion (H O ) + 3 THE SECTION ABOUT pH AND BUFFERS I WILL COVER ON THE NEXT SET OF NOTES… I WILL WAIT UNTIL THE TEACHER EXPLAINS IT TO MAKE SURE I DO NOT COMMUNICATE WRONG INFORMATION
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