HIMA Notes Chapter 2
HIMA Notes Chapter 2 HIMA 3000
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This 8 page Class Notes was uploaded by Taylor Notetaker on Sunday August 28, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to HIMA 3000 at East Carolina University taught by Katelyn Hardy in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 7 views.
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Date Created: 08/28/16
Peritoneum= multilayered membrane that protects and holds organs in place within the abdominal cavity o Parietal peritoneum: outer layer; lines the interior of abdominal wall o Mesentery: double layer; attaches parts of intestine to interior abdominal wall o Visceral peritoneum: inner layer; surrounds organs of abdominal cavity Retroperitoneal: means located behind the peritoneum Structures of the Body 1. Cells (the basic structural and functional units of the body; Grouped together to form tissues and organs) o Cytology: study of the cell (cyt: cell; -ology: study of) o Cytologist: Specialist in study and analysis of cells (-ologist: specialist) Structure of Cells o Cell membrane: Semipermeable membrane surrounding and protecting contents of cell from external environment o Cytoplasm: Material within the cell membrane, not part of the nucleus o Nucleus: Controls activities of the cell Stem Cells (Differ from other cells because of two characteristics 1. Unspecialized cells able to renew themselves for long periods of time. 2. May be transformed into cells with special functions) AKA Somatic Stem Cells o Adult stem cells: AKA Somatic Stem Cells (Undifferentiated cells located among differentiated cells in tissue/organ) No specialized function or structure Harvested for transplantation from hemopoietic tissue of the donor's bone marrow Embryonic Stem Cells: (undifferentiated cells that are unlike any specific adult cell; however they have the important ability to for ANY adult cell) Proliferate indefinitely in laboratory Do not require a perfect match between patient and donor when transplanted Obtained from umbilical cord blood (cord blood), placenta, or surplus embryos produced by in vitro fertilization 2. Genetics (Study of the transfer of genes from parent to child and the role of these genes in health and disease) (gene: producing; -tics: pertaining to) o Gene: fundamental physical/functional unit of heredity Dominant and Recessive Genes o Dominant gene: inherited from either parent (Offspring will inherit that condition or characteristic) o Recessive gene: inherited from both parents (offspring will inherit the condition or characteristic); if inherited from only 1 parent then offspring will not have condition or characteristic) Sickle cell anemia (inherited red blood cell disorder transmitted by recessive gene) The Human Genome o Genome: the complete set of genetic information of an organism Important in studying use of genetics in health and science Chromosomes (a genetic structure located within the nucleus of each cell; made of DNA molecules containing the body’s genes) o Somatic Cell: any cell in the body except the gametes (sex cells). Somatic means pertaining to the body in general. Contains 46 chromosomes (23 pairs)-22 identical pairs and one XX or XY DNA (located on the pairs of chromosomes in the nucleus of each cell; same for all living organisms) o Helix, double helix; not found in erythrocytes; all unique Genetic Disorders (AKA hereditary disorder; a pathological condition caused by an absent or defective gene) o Cystic Fibrosis (CF): a genetic disorder that is present at birth and affects both the respiratory and digestive systems o Down Syndrome (DS): a genetic variation that is associated with a characteristics facial appearance, learning disabilities, developmental delays and physical abnormalities o Hemophilia: a group of hereditary bleeding disorders in which a blood clotting factor is missing; this blood coagulation disorder is characterized by spontaneous hemorrhages or severe bleeding following an injury o Huntington’s disease (HD): a genetic disorder that is passed from parent to child. Each child of a parent with the gene has a 50/50 chance of inheriting this defective gene. This condition causes nerve degeneration with symptoms that most often appear in midlife (Degeneration means worsening condition). This damage eventually results in uncontrolled movements and the loss of some mental abilities. o Muscular Dystrophy: a group of genetic diseases that are characterized by progressive weakness and degeneration of the skeletal muscles that control movement o Phenylketonuria (PKU): a rare genetic disorder in which the essential digestive enzyme (phenylalanine hydroxylase) is missing. Can be detected by a blood test when infant. Can live normal life-diatary 3. Tissues (A group or layer of similarly specialized cells that perform certain functions) Histology: microscopic study of tissues Histologist: non physician specializing in the study of microscopic structure of tissues (hist: tissue; -ology: study of) Epithelial Tissue: protective covering for internal and external surfaces of body o Epithelium: specialized for formation of epidermis of skin and surface layer of mucous membranes o Endothelium: lines blood/lymph vessels, body cavities, glands, and organs Connective Tissue: support and connect organs and other body tissue o 4 types: Dense connective tissue: forms joints Adipose tissue: provides padding, insulation, and support (adip: fat; -ose: pertaining to) Loose connective tissue: surrounds various organs; supports nerve cells and blood vessels Liquid connective tissue: blood and lymph; transport nutrients and waste products throughout the body Muscle Tissue: contains cells with the specialized ability to contract and relax Nerve Tissue: contains cells with the specialized ability to react to stimuli and to conduct electrical impulses Pathology of tissue formation: Defective tissue formation, often due to unknown causes, may occur as tissue forms before birth or may appear later in life Incomplete tissue formation: o Aplasia: Defective development or congenital absence of an organ or tissue (a-: without; -plasia: formation) o Hypoplasia: Deficient in number of cells leading to incomplete development of an organ or tissue (hypo-: deficient; -plasia: formation) Abnormal tissue formation: o Anaplasia: Change in structure of cells and their orientation to each other (ana-: backward) o Dysplasia: Abnormal development/growth of cells, tissues, or organs (dys-: bad) o Hyperplasia: Increase in number of cells resulting in enlargement of organ/tissue o Hypertrophy: Increase in bulk of body part/organ due to increase in size, but not in number of cells (hyper-: excessive; -trophy: development) 4. Glands (a group of specialized epithelial cells that are capable of producing secretions (substance produced by a gland) Two major types: o Exocrine: secrete chemical substances into ducts (exo-: out of: -crine: to secrete) o Endocrine: produce hormones; no ducts (endo-: within) Pathology and Procedures of the Glands o Adenitis: Inflammation of a gland (aden: gland; -itis: inflammation) o Adenocarcinoma: Malignant tumor originating in glandular tissue (aden/o: gland; carcin: cancerous; -oma: tumor) o Adenoma: Benign tumor arising in or resembling glandular tissue o Adenosis: Any disease or condition of a gland (-osis: abnormal condition or disease) o Adenosclerosis: Abnormal hardening of a gland (-sclerosis: abnormal hardening) o Adenectomy: Surgical removal of a gland (-ectomy: surgical removal) Body systems and related organs o Body organ: performs a specific function o Body system: organization of body organs with specialized functions Pathology (study of disease) Pathologist: Physician specialized in laboratory analysis of diseased tissue samples Etiology: Study of causes of disease (eti-: cause) Disease Transmission o Pathogen: Disease-causing microorganism o Transmission: Spread of a disease o Contamination: Probability that a pathogen is present; Due to lack of hygiene standards or failure to practice appropriate infection control o Communicable disease: Transmitted from one person to another by direct or indirect contact o Indirect contact transmission: Susceptible person is infected by contact with contaminated surface o Bloodborne transmission: Spread of disease by contact with infected blood/body fluids o Droplet transmission: Spread of disease by large respiratory droplets produced by the act of coughing or sneezing o Airborne transmission: Spread of disease by contact with germs floating in the air o Food borne or waterborne transmission: Fecal-oral transmission; Spread of disease due to eating or drinking contaminated food or water o Vector-borne transmission: Spread of disease due to the bite of a vector (Most common vector: mosquito) Outbreaks of Disease o Epidemiologist: Specialist in study of outbreaks of disease within a population group (epi-: above; dem/i: population; -ologist: specialist) o Endemic: Ongoing presence of disease within a population group (en-: within; dem: population; -ic: pertaining to) o Epidemic: Sudden, widespread outbreak of disease within a specific population group o Pandemic: Outbreak of disease occurring over a large geographic area (pan-: entire; dem: population; -ic: pertaining to) Types of Diseases o Functional disorder: Producing symptoms for which no physiological/anatomical cause is identified o Iatrogenic illness: Unfavorable response to prescribed medical treatment o Infectious disease: Illness due to living pathogenic organisms o Idiopathic disease: Illness without known cause (idi/o: peculiar to the individual; path: disease; -ic: pertaining to) Types of Diseases o Nosocomial infection: Disease acquired in hospital or clinical setting o Organic disorder: Due to detectable physical changes in the body Congenital Disorders (an abnormal condition that exists at the time of birth; congenital means existing at birth) o Developmental disorder: Birth defect resulting in anomaly or malformation Anomaly : A deviation from the norm Atresia: congenital absence of a normal body opening or the failure of a structure to be tubular o Prenatal influences: Include mother's health, behavior, and whether or not she seeks prenatal medical care Rubella is an example of an infection a problem with the mom’s health Fetal Alcohol Syndrome Premature Birth and Birth Injuries o Premature birth: Occurs earlier than 37-week gestation o Birth injuries: Congenital disorders which were not present before the events surrounding the time of birth Aging and Death o Aging leads to higher risk of developing chronic or eventually fatal health problems o Geriatrics: Study of medical problems/care of older people o Postmortem: after death (Autopsy: postmortem examination) Health Care Professionals o Allie health professions include roles outside of medicine, nursing and pharmacy o General practitioner: Provides ongoing care for all ages o Internist: Specializes in diagnosing/treating disorders of internal organs o Pediatrician: Specializes in treating infants and children o Geriatrician (gerontologist): Specialized in the care of older people o Nurse practitioner: Nurse with graduate training working under supervision of a physician o Physician assistant: Licensed professional working under the supervision of a physician o Medical receptionist: Schedules and registers patients for appointment o Medical assistant: Performs administrative/clinical tasks (clinical medical assistant) a certified medical assistant (CMA) from the American Association of Medical Asistnats o Medical coder: Reviews medical records and assigns appropriate codes for treatment/services o Emergency physician: Specializes in high-acuity medicine in the emergency room o Emergency medical technician: Licensed health care professional working in pre hospital setting o Registered nurse: Licensed health care professional who assesses and provides care for patients o Licensed vocational nurse: Works under supervision of a doctor or RN o Certified nursing assistant: Provides basic patient care o Pharmacist: Licensed medical professional who dispenses prescribed medication o Intensive care unit (critical care unit): Site of continuous monitoring of critically ill patients o Intensivist: Specializes in care of critically ill patients o Hospitalist: Physician focusing on general medical care of hospitalized patients o Telemetry unit: Provides continuous cardiac monitoring by electronic transmission of data for patients with heart problems not requiring intensive care o Medical/surgical unit: Provides nursing care for lower acuity patients who require continued drug therapy or monitoring o
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