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Bio 2 week one notes

by: Brooke Martin

Bio 2 week one notes Biol 2108k

Brooke Martin
GPA 3.9
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About this Document

phylogeny and cladograms
Principles of Biology II
Class Notes
Biology, georgia state university




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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Brooke Martin on Sunday August 28, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Biol 2108k at Georgia State University taught by Brewer in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 9 views. For similar materials see Principles of Biology II in Biology at Georgia State University.


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Date Created: 08/28/16
Biology 2 MW 12:00 PM Week 1 Notes August 28, 2016 Evolution: change in gene/allele frequency in a population over time Mechanics driving evolution 1. Mutation 2. Natural selection 3. Gene flow 4. Nonrandom mating 5. Genetic drift a. Founder effect: loss of genetic variation b. Bottleneck effect: population decrease Basic Tenets of Natural Selection 1. Variation 2. Heredity 3. Selective pressure a. Differential survival + reproductive success Natural selection leads to adaptation Fitness: how well you are able to adapt Phylogeny : evolutionary history of a group of organisms  Shown via phylogenetic trees/cladogram: hypothesis of evolutionary relationships Taxon: singular group of organisms  Ex) kingdom, phylum  Grouped based on most recent ancestor Points on Cladograms 1. Node: branch point where lineages diverge; most common ancestor 2. Sister Groups: more closely related than other taxons 3. Derived traits: trait present in decedent, not ancestor 4. Synapmorphy: shared derived traits, key characteristics 5. Homologous traits: similar as a result of common ancestor and passed down Grouping on Cladograms  Monophyletic (aka clade): one ancestor and all descendants  Paraphyletic: common ancestor and some descendants  Polyphyletic group: doesn’t include common ancestor


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