CS 2200 Week 1 Notes
CS 2200 Week 1 Notes CS 2200 A3
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by David Meyer on Sunday August 28, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to CS 2200 A3 at Georgia Institute of Technology - Main Campus taught by Tom Conte in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 17 views.
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Date Created: 08/28/16
● What’s inside the box? ○ Rebootingcomputing.ieee.org ○ Processors (“cores”) ○ Peripherals ○ I/O glue ● Layers of Abstraction ○ Software ■ Problem > Algorithm > Program ○ Hardware ■ ISA > Microarchitecture > Circuits > Devices ● OS is _____? ○ Manages computer resources ○ Protection ○ Memory management ○ Interface to I/O ○ Multics ■ Unix, B, C > designed for OS ● Course Concepts ○ Processor ○ Data path/ control ○ Interrupts ○ Pipelining ○ Process scheduling ○ Memory management ○ Caches ○ Parallel systems (parallelism) ○ I/O disks (mass storage) ○ Networking ○ Disk scheduling ○ File systems ● Abebooks.com ● ISA’s: instruction set architecture (language) ● Software > ISA ○ Assembly language thorugh an assembly becomes machine language ● Common ISAs: LC3, x86, ARM, MIPS, LC2200, SPARC, PowerPC, Itanium, ARB, Z80, PDP11, 8051 (most commonly used; it is an 8bit) ● ISA: ○ state of the running program ○ Instruction semantics and how they update state ○ Instruction encoding syntax ● 1st Standard ISA: IBM360 > Gene Amdahl ○ Over time more complicated, crufty, brittle ● Care about fast ● Care about Cost ○ Memory: instruction length and variable instructions ○ Energy: instruction semantics ○ Power: cooling cost ● Ease of Use: ○ Used to be humans but today mostly will it compile (compilers do it) ○ Compilers are not perfect and cannot to is with a high level language ● Hungy ALU: arithmetic logic unit ○ Does all the work; operands are in memory ● Registers are used because reading and writing from main memory everytime is slow ○ LC3 has 8 registers ○ LC2200 has 16 registers ○ X86 has 6 registers ● CHAPTER 2 ○ Using Registers ■ LD RE, B ■ LD R3, C ■ ADD R1, R2, R3 ■ ST A, R1 (“ST R1, A”) ● X = B*B + 2*A*B + A*A ○ Use more than once, putting in a register saves time rather than taking B out of memory two or three times ● Encoding ○ Addresses are today 64 bits ○ ADD A,B,C > 192 bits long! ● Why NOT infinite registers ○ Real estate on chip ○ Longer the bit lines, the slower it is ○ Time ~ Capacitor ○ Speed Problem
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