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Fundamentals of PSY Week 1

by: Nicole Derf

Fundamentals of PSY Week 1 PSY 110

Marketplace > Illinois State University > Psychology (PSYC) > PSY 110 > Fundamentals of PSY Week 1
Nicole Derf
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About this Document

An Introduction to Psychology
Fundamentals of Psychology
Cathleen Campbell-Raufer
Class Notes




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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Nicole Derf on Sunday August 28, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSY 110 at Illinois State University taught by Cathleen Campbell-Raufer in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 4 views. For similar materials see Fundamentals of Psychology in Psychology (PSYC) at Illinois State University.

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Date Created: 08/28/16
Psychology (PSY) week one, Lecture 8/22/16-8/26/16 Chapter One: Introduction to Psychology  Psychology- scientific study, way you act (behavior), and the way you process information (mental process). o More trustworthy than common sense, because it is actual scientific research. o Uses the scientific method  How to read the book efficiently: SQ3R o S-Survey, just skim the book, look at the graphs and pictures first. o Q-Question, prepare for what you are learning for. o R-Read, actually read the book. By sections, not all at once. o R-Recite, trying to produce the information in your own words. o R-Review, Study guides, practices tests. Do you know the information?  Scientific Method- most objective way to acquire knowledge  Four Goals of Psychology o Description- What people do. o Explanation- Why do people do things? o Prediction- Imagining what people will do. o Influence- Having control, based on the information received.  Two different types of research o Basic (Pure)- Seeing what the problem is. o Applied (Practical)- Having a practical problem and solving it with the research that was done.  Early PSY o Wundt-father of PSY  Started the first lab  Edited the first journal of PSY  Student: Tichner  Was a Structuralists- Looking inward to your own mind processes.  Not a Functionalist- What are the uses of the processes? o William James o PSY Started to evolve to adapt behavior, not just mental processes. o Started to study animals, children, educational PSY, ect. o Majority Female field  Schools of PSY o Behaviorism- science of behavior  Watson- Little Albert and the White Rat experiment  Pavlov- and his dogs  Skinner- most famous behaviorist o o Psychoanalytic- Unconscious mind. We are motivated not just by things we are aware of, but things that we aren’t. Negative view. People are constantly stuck between nature and society.  Freud-Started  Jung- Once a disciple of Freud, then broke away. o Humanism- People make good choices if given the opportunity.  Rogers o Cognitive- As humans we are active processers of information  Gestalt  Information processing PSY o Evolutionary- How human survival behaviors have adapted due to the environmental change. Adaptation. o Biological- Neuroscience approach o Sociocultural- The society and culture we grow up in affects how we act and think.  Contemporary perspectives o Behavioral- Over behavior, something to see or measure. How do we learn good habits? Bad ones? o Psychoanalytic- Childhood experiences, hidden and unconscious processes. Unconscious motives. How does my current behavior show my unconscious thoughts? o Humanistic- we are able to choose how we are able to act. o Cognitive- o Evolutionary- How is the behavior you have now affect the evolutionary scale? Is there a gene for aggression? For wanted to help? o Biological- Brain and central nervous system and the processes that underline behavior. Are you less anxious when you have less neuroadapters? o Sociocultural- The values and rules that we learn from society. Would someone from America show the same competitive levels as someone from Kenya.  Specialties A LOT MORE THAN THIS o Clinical- Diagnosing and treating people with mental disorders. o School- Children’s learning problems or adjusting problems. o Forensic- Application of PSY to the legal setting. Jury selection. o Counseling- Treat people with less major problems than needing to be admitted o Physiological- Brain o Experimental- Experts in conducting research and interpreting the results. o Developmental- How is a 16 y/o different from a 40 y/o o Educational- best methods of teaching and learning o Social- how is your behavior effected by the presents of others. o Industrial/Organizational- Marketing strategies,     How are theories evaluated? You need these three things. o 1) Testable hypotheses o 2) Solutions for problems o 3) Heuristic value- Does the theory spark debate? Does it get people thinking?  What is Critical Thinking? o Independent thinking- They have to be a skeptic. It’s a good thing! I promise! You must demand quality proof. Why are you making this claim? o Suspension of Judgment- You can’t rush to get there. You must gather evidence and then choose if it supports your theory or not. Think about the possibility your theory is wrong. o Willingness to Change- based on your research, not confirmed, you must be willing to discard your theory. You must change your way of thinking, and possibly start all over.  Research Methods o Descriptive  Naturalistic observation- more natural, not interfering with the group you are observing. Problems: Have to wait for the event to occur. You can’t say anything about cause and effect. Very Time consuming. Observation Bias- What you categorize as aggression may not be actually aggression, have more than one observer.  Laboratory observation- Bring them into a lab that looks like the natural environment. More control, but less like the real world. More expensive.  Case study- Intense study usually with only one person, usually with a unique trait. Get great detail! But generalizability, you cannot assume everyone with this trait acts like this.  Survey- A lot of data for a lot of people, but can provide faulty information. Mostly generates a sample.  Sample- a survey taken in a smaller group than you would like to. Cannot get a survey of everyone in the state of Illinois.


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