Week 1, EDPS 251: Fundamentals of Adolescent Development
Week 1, EDPS 251: Fundamentals of Adolescent Development EDPS 251
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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Marshall DeFor on Sunday August 28, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to EDPS 251 at University of Nebraska Lincoln taught by Jarrett in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 66 views. For similar materials see Fundamentals of Adolescent Development for Education in Educational Psychology at University of Nebraska Lincoln.
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Date Created: 08/28/16
EDPS 251: Fundamentals of Adolescent Development: Week 1 Week 1 Recap Hello, fellow students! I’m Marshall DeFor. I am a Secondary English and Language Arts Education major at University of NebraskaLincoln. This week, we began discussing how adolescents think and feel, as well as older generations’ responses to adolescents, especially adolescent stereotypes. I wrote all of the following material, unless it is otherwise cited. Life gets crazy, so hopefully, this takes some of the pressure off of missing a day or missing a section of notes or reading. Table of Contents: Lectures Notes Monday Wednesday Friday Readings for the Week Adolescence by John W. Santrock, Ch. 1, pages 131 Lectures Please keep in mind that this is supplemental material only. I am a human, and I make mistakes. I cannot write down everything that is said or presented. These notes should provide you with a large amount of what was discussed in class, but may not include all of the material that you need to know. The main goal of these lecture notes are to help you remember the major points of each lecture that were not included in the slides provided by the instructor. Monday On Monday, we went over the syllabus together. No notes to share. Wednesday Pretest. No notes to share. Friday A. Chapter 1: History and Theories a. What is adolescence? i. Transitional? Yes, and... ii. Craziness? Yes, and... b. When does it start? i. Biologically: Puberty. Hormonal. ii. Socially: American educational society: Elementary to Secondary education; more independent responsibility iii. Intellectual: Exploration into further understanding of subjects; building adult skillsets or interests EDPS 251: Fundamentals of Adolescent Development: Week 1 c. When does it end? i. Biologically: body stops developing ii. Easier to identify the beginning of adolescence than the ending iii. Socially: American view: financial independence, loosely; able to relate more towards adulthood and independence; stability in ideals iv. Historically: same biologically, much different culturally v. Still varies within our society d. History: i. Selfdetermination: the ability to choose who one is or how one defines oneself ii. Egocentrism: the belief that one is correct in one’s choices or beliefs iii. Examples of sociocultural and sociohistorical factors that may contribute to “Storm and Stress” view: 1. Education system changes 2. Constant expectations change (job, relationships, etc.) e. Stereotypes: i. Types: 1. Immaturity: the vocal few louder voices speak over the quiet majority 2. Loitering; laziness, idleness: the vocal few: Reasoning: energy change of growth 3. Moody, argumentative, bratty, “sex, drugs, rocknroll,” stubborn, defiant: portrayed in the media publicity loves negativity 4. Constructively passionate: celebrated teens: soldiers, academics, athletes, those who find their “niche” and work hard toward success ii. Reasons for Positive Views 1. Constructive selfimage, as opposed to selfimage debacle 2. Ability to explore, as opposed to suppression of identity 3. Inclusive in adulthood, as opposed to barriers 4. Less emphasis on what to rebel against, i.e. smoking Readings for this Week: Please keep in mind that this is supplemental material only. I am a human, and I make mistakes. These notes are not comprehensive and do not tell you all of what the material has to offer. The purpose of these notes is to remind you of basic concepts and vocabulary within the text. Adolescence by John W. Santrock, Ch. 1, pages 131 Definitions are taken from the following, and cited parenthetically: Santrock, John W. Adolescence. 16th ed. McGrawHill Education, 2015. Print. Side note: For another section guide, take a look at pages 4143. A. Introduction: Jeffrey Dahmer, Alice Walker, Dr. Michael Maddaus. All had traumatic parts of their childhoods, yet the way they reacted to these events were widely varied. One became a murderer, one wrote, and one became a surgeon, respectively. What does this tell us about how childhood links to future success? B. The Historical Perspective EDPS 251: Fundamentals of Adolescent Development: Week 1 a. Early History: i. Fourthcentury BCE, philosophers argued that adolescents had rational (Plato) and selfdetermination (Aristotle.) ii. Middle Ages, adolescents are treated like small adults and judged harshly. iii. The philosopher Rousseau in the eighteenthcentury CE went back to the original view of a difference between adolescents and adults. He divided adolescents into two groups: curiosity of the adult world (1215 yrs. of age) and emotional maturation (1520 yrs. of age.) b. The Twentieth and TwentyFirst Centuries i. G. Stanley Hall’s StormandStress View: a concept that adolescence is a turbulent time charged with conflict and mood swings (Adolescence, John W. Santrock, p. 4) ii. Margaret Mead’s Sociocultural View of Adolescence: a controversial standpoint that adolescence is not biologically stressful, but instead socioculturally stressful; a belief that societies that engage children in adult life and provide a smooth transition from childhood to adulthood experience minimal stress during this time; believed to be biased by many, but defended by some iii. Inventionist View: t he view that adolescence is a sociohistorical creation; especially important in this view are the sociohistorical circumstances at the beginning of the twentieth century, a time when legislation was enacted that ensured the dependency of youth and made their move into the economic sphere more manageable (Santrock, p. 4) iv. Further Changes in the Twentieth Century and the TwentyFirst Century 1. cohort effects: characteristics related to a person’s year of birth, era, or generation, rather than to his or her actual chronological age (Santrock, p. 5) 2. 1950s to 1970s: higher education was important, but racial disparity was clear between white persons and AfricanAmerican persons in college and secondary education; political activism against the Vietnam War was prominent among adolescents 3. Millennials: a. Millennials: the generation born after 1980, the first to come of age and enter emerging adulthood in the new millennium; two characteristics of Millennials stand out: (1) their ethnic diversity, and (2) their connection to technology (Santrock, p. 5) b. Of course, there is a lot of controversy surrounding how the integration of technology will ultimately affect the brain. c. Damon’s T he Path to Purpose (2008) shown a critical light on adolescents increasing inability to create longterm life plans. c. Stereotyping of Adolescents i. stereotype: A generalization that reflects our impressions and beliefs about a broad group of people; all stereotypes refer to an image of what the typical member of a specific group is like (Santrock, p. 7) ii. adolescent generalization group: A delson's concept of generalizations being made about adolescents based on information regarding a limited, often highly visible group of adolescents (Santrock, p. 7) d. A Positive View of Adolescents i. Old Centuries and New Centuries: There has been a major switchup in the way that society views adolescence. Looking back, people used to think adolescence was inherently problematic, and psychologists now think that punishment was too harsh because of this. ii. Generational Perceptions and Misperceptions: Time changes culture. Things that are popular now were not popular when older generations were young, (except smoking, drinking, sex, etc.,) and because of this, it is easier for older generations EDPS 251: Fundamentals of Adolescent Development: Week 1 to distance themselves from adolescents, especially with the help of the media portrayals of teens as “bad kids.” iii. Positive Youth Development: Developed by Jacqueline Lerner, PYD emphasizes the good in youth with the help of the “Five Cs”: Competence, Confidence, Connection, Character, and Caring/Compassion. C. Today’s Adolescents in the United States and Around the World a. Adolescents in the US i. Social Contexts: 1. contexts: the settings in which development occurs; these settings are influenced by historical, economical, and cultural factors (Santrock, p. 10) 2. Studies can only be as accurate as the sample that they choose. For example, if there is a study of seventy white AngloSaxon adolescent boys and sixtyeight white AngloSaxon adolescent boys, one could reasonably extend the findings to “white AngloSaxon adolescents.” As the number of adolescents in the US with other ethnic backgrounds continues to rise, it becomes harder and harder to extend the findings to “American adolescents” because the subject sample includes less and less the entire makeup of American adolescents. This explanation puts this study into context by saying that because of historical and cultural factors, this study cannot be generalized to “American adolescents.” ii. Social Policy and Adolescents’ Development 1. social policy: a national government’s course of action designed to influence the welfare of its citizens (Santrock, p. 10) 2. Other caring adults, besides parents and guardians, have a large positive impact on teens’ lives. 3. America has a substantially larger percent of teens and children living in poverty (19.9%) compared to other economically developed countries. This should be a huge concern in politics today! b. The Global Perspective i. Eurocentricity is real. Most research that is presented in the Western world also contains samples from the Western world, making it contextually difficult to generalize to “all teens in the world.” ii. Some categories in which teens experience differences from the overrepresented Western world and the underrepresented Eastern world are health and wellbeing, gender, family, school, and peer relations. D. The Nature of Development a. development: the pattern of change that begins at conception and continues through the lifespan; most development involves growth, although it also includes decay, as in death or dying (Santrock, p. 14) b. Processes and Periods i. Biological, Cognitive, and Socioemotional Processes 1. biological processes: p hysical changes in an individual’s body (Santrock, p. 15) 2. cognitive processes: changes in an individual’s thinking and intelligence (Santrock, p. 15) 3. socioemotional processes: changes in an individual’s personality, emotions, relationships with other people, and social contexts (Santrock, p. 15) ii. Periods of Development 1. prenatal period: the time from conception to birth (Santrock, p. 15) 2. infancy: the developmental period that extends from birth to 18 or 24 months of age (Santrock, p. 15) EDPS 251: Fundamentals of Adolescent Development: Week 1 3. early childhood: the developmental period extending from the end of infancy to about 5 or 6 years of age; sometimes called the preschool years (Santrock, p. 15) 4. middle and late childhood: the developmental period extending from about 6 to about 10 or 11 years of age; sometimes called the elementary years (Santrock, p. 15) 5. adolescence: the developmental period of transition from childhood to adulthood; it involves biological, cognitive, and socioemotional changes; adolescence begins at approximately 10 to 13 years of age and ends in the late teens (Santrock, p. 16) a. early adolescence: the developmental period that corresponds roughly to the middle school or junior high years and includes most pubertal change (Santrock, p. 16) b. late adolescence: the developmental period that corresponds approximately to the latter half of the second decade of life; career interests, dating, and identity exploration are often more pronounced in late adolescence than in early adolescence (Santrock, p. 16) 6. early adulthood: the developmental period beginning in the late teens or early thirties and lasting through the thirties (Santrock, p. 16) 7. middle adulthood: the developmental period that is entered at about 35 to 45 years of age and exited at about 55 to 65 years of age (Santrock, p. 16) 8. late adulthood: the developmental period that lasts from about 60 to 70 years of age until death (Santrock, p. 16) c. Developmental Transitions i. Childhood to Adolescence: things are ahappenin’! Children go through puberty, they become more independent, and begin to think more conceptually in this period of their life. ii. Adolescence to Adulthood: 1. emerging adulthood: the developmental period occurring from approximately 18 to 25 years of age; this transitional period between adolescence and adulthood is characterized by experimentation and exploration (Santrock, p. 18) a. Jeffrey Arnett’s five key features of this period: identity exploration; instability; selffocus; feeling inbetween; and the age of possibilities, a time when individuals have an opportunity to transform their lives 2. Major Cultural Markers in the US of Becoming an Adult: a. Fulltime job b. Economic independence c. Taking responsibility for oneself d. Marriage, although this is a much more common cultural marker of adulthood in developing countries iii. resilience: adapting positively and achieving successful outcomes in the face of significant risks and adverse circumstances (Santrock, p. 21) iv. Joseph and Claudia Allen provided the following suggestions to help parents with the transition from adolescence to adulthood: provide them with opportunities to be contributors; give candid, quality feedback to adolescents; create positive adult connections with adolescents; and challenge adolescents to become more competent. d. Developmental Issues EDPS 251: Fundamentals of Adolescent Development: Week 1 i. naturenurture issue: issue involving the debate about whether development is primarily influenced by an organism’s biological inheritance, “nature,” or by its environmental experiences, “nurture” (Santrock, p. 22) ii. continuitydiscontinuity issue: issue regarding whether development involves gradual, cumulative change, “continuity,” or distinct changes, “discontinuity” (Santrock, p. 22) iii. earlylater experience issue: issue focusing on the degree to which early experiences, especially early in childhood, or later experiences are the key determinants of development (Santrock, p. 22) iv. Most experts agree that taking an extreme side on any of these issues is unwise. This is because the answer is most likely somewhere in the middle for all three issues. E. The Science of Adolescent Development a. Science and the Scientific Method i. Steps of the Scientific Method: conceptualize a problem, collect data, analyze data, draw conclusions ii. theory: an interrelated, coherent set of ideas that helps explain phenomena and make predictions (Santrock, p. 25) iii. hypotheses: specific assertions and predictions that can be tested (Santrock, p. 25) b. Theories in Adolescent Development i. Psychoanalytic Theories 1. psychoanalytic theories: theories that describe development as primarily unconscious and heavily colored by emotion; behavior is simply a surface characteristic, and the symbolic workings of the mind have to be analyzed to understand behavior; early experiences with parents are emphasized (Santrock, p. 25) 2. Erikson’s psychosocial theory: theory that includes eight stages of human development; each stage consists of a unique developmental task that confronts individuals with a crisis that must be faced (Santrock, p. 27) These eight crises and stages are: trust vs. mistrust in early infancy, autonomy vs. shame and doubt in late infancy, initiative vs. guilt in early childhood, industry vs. inferiority in middle and late childhood, identity vs. identity confusion in adolescence, intimacy vs. isolation in early adulthood, generativity vs. stagnation in middle adulthood, and integrity vs. despair in late adulthood. ii. Cognitive Theories 1. Piaget’s theory: a theory stating that children actively construct their understanding of the world and go through four stages of cognitive development (Santrock, p. 28) These four stages are the sensorimotor stage, the preoperational stage, the concrete operational stage, and the formal operational stage. 2. Vygotsky’s Sociocultural Cognitive Theory: a sociocultural cognitive theory that emphasizes how culture and social interaction guide cognitive development 3. informationprocessing theory: a theory emphasizing that individuals manipulate information, monitor it, and strategize about it; central to this approach are the processes of memory and thinking iii. Behavioral and Social Cognitive Theories 1. Skinner’s Operant Conditioning: basically, rewards and punishment shape behavioral development 2. Bandura’s Social Cognitive Theory: a theory that emphasizes reciprocal influences of behavior, environment, and personal/cognitive factors (Santrock, p. 30) EDPS 251: Fundamentals of Adolescent Development: Week 1 iv. Bronfenbrenner's Ecological Theory: a theory focusing on the influence of five environmental systems: microsystem, mesosystem, exosystem, macrosystem, and chronosystem (Santrock, p. 30) 1. microsystem: an adolescent’s setting, such as school, family, neighborhood, etc. 2. mesosystem: how microsystems interact with one another, such as bad relationships with parents leading to bad relationships with other adult figures 3. exosystem: how other people’s microsystems affect each other, such as a bad day at work for mom might mean an angry event at family dinner 4. macrosystem: culture of the adolescent, such as American culture 5. chronosystem: where the individual is in time and history v. eclectic theoretical orientation: an orientation that does not follow any one theoretical approach, but rather, selects from each theory whatever is considered the best in it (Santrock, p. 31)
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