Week 1 Notes
Week 1 Notes EXSC 223
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This 14 page Class Notes was uploaded by Madison Waterman on Sunday August 28, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to EXSC 223 at University of South Carolina taught by Dr. Raymond Thompson in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 194 views. For similar materials see Anatomy and Physiology I in Science at University of South Carolina.
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Date Created: 08/28/16
EXSC 223: Week of 8/22/16 Notes from the textbook Ch. 1.1-1.4 1.1 Form (anatomy) determines function (physiology) • Internal anatomy can vary but 90% matches the textbook • Types of anatomy o Gross/macroscopic: large body structures, visible to the naked eye § Regional: all of the structures in the same region are examined § Systemic: anatomy is studied by system § Surface: internal structures studied in relation to surface skin o Microscopic: too small to be seen by the naked eye § Cytology: cells § Histology: tissues 1.2 The body’s organization ranges from atoms to entire organism • Atomsàmoleculesàorganellesàcellsàtissueàorgansàorgan systemàorganism • Tissues= groups of similar cells with common function o Four main types 1. Epithelium: cover surfaces, line cavities 2. Muscle: movement 3. Connective tissue: supports and protects organs 4. Nervous tissue: transmits electrical impulses • Organ= composed of at least two tissue types (usually four) • Organ system= organs working together for a common purpose • Organism= highest level of organization 1.3 What are the requirements for life? • Cells are dependent on one anotheràhumans are multicellular so the individual cells must work together • Requirements o Maintain boundaries: keep internal separate from external § Skin (integumentary system) o Movement: contraction of muscles attached to skeletal system o Responsiveness/excitability: interpret stimuli and sense changes o Digestion: break down ingested foods o Metabolism: all chemical reactions in cells o Excretion: removing wastes o Reproduction o Growth • Survival needs o Nutrients o Oxygen o Water o Appropriate temperature o Appropriate atmospheric pressure 1.4 Homeostasis is maintained by negative feedback • Homeostasis: body’s ability to maintain stable internal conditions despite changing external conditions o Dynamic state of equilibrium Lecture Notes on 8/22/16 4 essential concepts in physiology: 1. principles of complementarity a. anatomy and physiology are interdependent 2. Physiology uses gradients a. Blood flows with a pressure gradient b. Cells maintain ion concentration with a gradient 3. Regulate protein function by regulating its shape a. Type of amino acids bonded together determines its shape b. Proteins can be made active or inactive by changing the shape 4. Negative feedback regulation is essential to homeostasis ****these 4 concepts will be used throughout the course**** Organization of organisms Level Example Structure Chemical level Oxygen Atoms O 2 Molecules Cellular level Nuclei, ribosomes, golgi Organelles Smooth muscle cell Cell Tissue level Smooth muscle tissue Tissue Organ level Blood vessel (made up of 3 Organ tissues: epithelial, smooth muscle, and connective) Organ system level Cardiovascular system (made Organ system up of organs: heart and blood vessels) Organism level Human (made up of many organism organ systems) • Anatomy: structure of body parts and their relationship to one another o Macro § Gross: study of large structures (heart, lungs, etc.) § Surface: internal body structures as they relate to skin • Ex: When a muscular person flexes, you can point to the different muscles and identify them o Micro § Cytology: cell level § Histology: tissue level o Developmental § Embryology • Physiology: function of living systems (think: HOW do they work?) o Explainable by anatomy • 11 systems (2 or more organs that work together for a specific function): o skeletal o muscular o digestive o integumentary o reproductive o nervous o endocrine o cardiovascular o respiratory o lymphatic o renal • function depends on structure o ex: red blood cells § have no nucleus, Golgi, etc. § do have the protein hemoglobin which helps transport oxygen § function: transport oxygen throughout the body § the anatomy corresponds to function because the cells do not want to use up the oxygen it is trying to transport by supporting many organelles • unique characteristics of living things o maintain boundaries § skin keeps dirt and bacteria out o movement § muscle § skeletal o responsive § sensory input § stimuli o digestion § food • mechanical: chewing • chemical: stomach acid § cellular • macrophages (big eaters): digest things in the body o metabolism § sum of all chemical reactions § catabolism-break down § anabolism-build o excretion § cellular level or organism level § elimination of waste • defecating • urinating § exhaling CO 2(metabolic byproduct) o growth o reproduction § procreation § cellularàmitosis • Homeostasis: a dynamic state of equilibrium which maintains a relatively constant internal environment o Ideal state of being o Continuously working to restore/maintain homeostasis o Ex: go outside in the sunàget hotàsweatàcool off o Lack of consistency in the internal environment leads to a disease state • How does the body maintain homeostasis? o NEGATIVE feedback (rarely positive feedback) § Whole point of a negative feedback system is to reduce/eliminate the stimulus § Negative feedback systems are self-limiting 1. Stimulus: go in the sun 2. Receptor: detect an increase in temperature **afferent pathway** 3. Input: message sent to control center (brain and spinal cord) **efferent pathway** 4. Output: gland activated 5. Response: sweat o Positive feedback control § Instead of reducing the stimulus, it is amplified (the more, the better) § Goal: to magnify or increase the stimulus § It is self-sustaining/self-perpetuating § Only 2 examples (any other responses are negative feedback!!!!!!) • Activation of platelets 1. Break/tear in blood vessel wall *pos. feedback initiated* 2. platelets secrete chemicals 3. activates more platelets which secrete more chemicals 4. platelets seal the tear ****We don’t know what shuts down positive feedback cycles**** • Delivering a baby 1. Contraction 2. Oxytocin released 3. Stronger contraction 4. More oxytocin released 5. Etc……… 6. Baby comes out Notes from the textbook Ch. 2.6, 2.8-2.12 2.6 Inorganic conpounds include water, salts, and many acids and bases • Organic=has carbon • Inorganic=no carbon o Ex/ water, salts, many acids and bases • Water o Most abundant inorganic compound § 60-80% of volume of most living cells o most important inorganic compound because of its properties § high heat capacity: requires a lot of energy to change its temperature (helps maintain a stable body temperature-homeostasis) § high heat of vaporization: a lot of heat has to be absorbed for water to evaporate in order to break Hydrogen bonds (when we sweat a lot of heat is removed when it evaporates) § polar solvent properties • universal solvent • polarity causes ionic compounds to dissociate • hydration layers: layers of water molecules • used to transport substances in the body because it is a good solvent § reactivity: adding water to break bonds: hydrolysis • helps conduct important reactions in the body § cushioning: protects organs • Salts o Ionic compounds made of cations (not H+) and anions (not OH-) o Ex/ Na S2 i4 made up of 2Na (cations) and SO (an4on) o Ions=electrolytes (conduct electrical currents in solution) o Salts in body= NaCl, CaCO , 3Cl § Help with nerve impulse transmission and muscle contractions • Acids o Sour o React with many metals o Substance that releases hydrogen ions (H+) o Proton donor o Concentration of protons determines acidity • Bases o Bitter o Slippery o Proton acceptors o Take up hydrogen ions (H+) - o Bicarbonate ions (HCO ) are 3bundant in blood o Ammonia (NH ) is a3common waste product • pH o more H+ in solution=more acidic o more OH- in solution=less acidic o pH=-log[H+] o pH = 7àneutral o pH < 7àacidic o pH > 7àbasic o acid + base = salt + water [neutralization reaction] o buffers resist large changes in pH in the body (help maintain homeostasis) § blood pH range is 7.35-7.45 o Strong acid: acid dissociates completely in water Ex/ HCl and H SO2 4 § o Weak acid: acid does not dissociate completely in water § Ex/ carbonic and acetic acid Strong base: base dissociates completely in water o § Ex/ hydroxides o Weak base: base ionizes incompletely § Ex/ sodium bicarbonate o Chemical blood buffer: carbonic acid-bicarbonate system § Carbonic acid (WA) does not completely dissociate, so it releases some bicarbonate ions (WB) and protons Resists change in pH of blood § 2.8 Carbohydrates provide an easily used energy source for the body • Carbohydrates o Sugars and starches o 1-2% of cell mass o contain C, H, and O o monomer: monosaccharide (1 sugar) § single chain/ring § 3-7 carbons § ex/ glucose o dimer: disaccharide (2 sugars) § 2 monomers joined by dehydration synthesis (water molecule lost when bond is formed) § ex/ sucrose, lactose, maltose o polymer: polysaccharide (3+ sugars) § polymers of small sugars formed by dehydration synthesis § large § good for storage § ex/ starch (storage carb for plants) and glycogen (storage carb for animals) o Functions § Quick energy § Oxidation reduction reactions • Glucose broken down • Oxidized • Electrons transferred • Bond energy released • ATP synthesizedàenergy! o Leftover is stored as glycogen or fat § Some structural function 2.9 Lipids insulate body organs, build cell membranes, and provide stored energy • Lipids o Insoluble in water o Dissolve other lipids, alcohols, and ethers o Contain C, H, O and sometimes P o Ex/triglycerides, phospholipids, steroids • Triglycerides (neutral fats) o Large molecules o Body’s most efficient and compact stored energy o When oxidizedàlots of energy o Made up of fatty acids and glycerol (3:1 ratio) o Saturated: all single bonds between Carbon atoms § Solid at room temperature § Ex/ butter o Unsaturated: 1 (mono) or many (poly) double bonds between carbon atoms § Liquid at room temperature § Ex/ olive oil • Phospholipids o Modified triglycerides § Diglycerides with a P group o Head=polar (hydrophilic) o Tail=non-polar (hydrophobic) o Main material in cell membranes • Steroids o Flat molecules made of four interlocking hydrocarbon rings o Fat soluble o Most important one: cholesterol § Obtained in diet (egg, cheese, meat) § Produced by liver o Sex hormones are steroid hormones 2.10 Proteins are the body’s basic structural material and have many vital functions • Protein makes up 10-30% of cell mass • functions o structure o enzymes o muscle contraction • contain C,H,O,N, and sometimes S • two important functional groups: amine and acid • Protein structures o Primary: straight polypeptide chain o Secondary: spirals (a-helices) and sheets (b-sheets) o Tertiary: a-helices and b-sheets are folded up to form compact globular molecules o Quaternary: two or more polypeptide chains with its own tertiary structures to form a functional protein 2.11 DNA and RNA store, transmit, and help express genetic information • Nucleic acids o Composed of C,H,O,N,P o Largest molecules in the body o Monomer: nucleotide (3 parts) § Nitrogenous base • Pyrimidines: thymine, cytosine, uracil • Purines: adenine, guanine § Pentose sugar § Phosphate group o Ex/ DNA and RNA 2.12 ATP transfers energy to other compounds • Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) o Primary energy transferring molecule in cells o Provides a form of energy that is immediately usable by all body cells o Energy used for different types of work: § Transport: ATP is used to power pumps to transport molecules across the plasma membrane § Mechanical: ATP phosphorylates contractile proteins in muscle cells so they can contract § Chemical: ATP phosphorylates key reactants, providing energy to drive energy-absorbing chemical reactions Lecture Notes on 8/24/16 • To have a reaction: must have a SUBSTRATE and ENERGY • Energy is in the form of heat • The more the substrate interacts with each other, the more likely the reaction is to happen • Reactions inoFhe oCdy are possible because of body temperature o 98.6 /37 o changes in body temperature affect reactions o temperature is important but NOT sufficient to carry out reactions § Catalysts are necessary • Catalysts 1. Lower activation energy 2. Increase reaction rate 3. Are not consumed in the reaction o The investment in energy is reduced o Sometimes ions can be catalysts o Enzymes= biological catalysts o Can exist as 2 parts 1. Apoenzymes: protein portion 2. Cofactor: assist the reaction o Activation energy is lost as heat • Rate of chemical reactions o Catalysts increase the rate of a reaction without being chemically changed o Reaction rates are influenced by: § Increase temp=increase rate • Not infinitely true, eventually levels off § Decrease temp=decrease rate § Decrease particle size=increase rate § Increase concentration of reactant=increase rate § Decrease pH=decrease rate • Energy o Capacity to do work o Energy forms: § Chemical: ATPàADP § Electrical: Action potentials (nerve impulses) § Mechanical: muscle shortening (contraction) § Radiant: light waves, vision • ATP o Adenosine=adenine + ribose o Adenosine monophosphate (AMP)= adenine + ribose + 1 phosphate group o Adenosine diphosphate (ADP)= adenine + ribose + 2 phosphate groups o Adenosine triphosphate (ATP)= adenine + ribose + 3 phosphate groups o Adenine: double ringed structure o Ribose: 5 carbon sugar o Phosphate groups: have a high energy bond • Acid o Compound which donates a Hydrogen ion (H+) to another compound (base) o Acids break down into H+ and Anion- o Ex: § HCl Û H + Cl- (Secreted by the stomach) + - § H 2O 3 H + HCO 3 (in blood) (Carbonic acid) (bicarbonate ion) o H C2 as3 H buffer in the blood o Soaks up free H+ when pH is low o Release H+ when pH is high Notes from the textbook Ch. 3.1 and 3.2 3.1 Cells are the smallest unit of life • Robert Hooke first observed cells, late 1600s • Cell theory 1. Cells are the basic structural and functional units of living organisms 2. Activity of an organism depends on individual and combined activities of its cells 3. Shapes/forms of cells determine their functions 4. Cells can only arise from other cells • Cells are the smallest living units • Human cell (3 main parts) o Plasma membrane: outer boundary, selectively permeable barrier o Cytoplasm: cytosol + all the organelles o Nucleus: “brain”, controls cell activity • Extracellular materials: substances contributing to body mass found outside of the cells o Body fluids § Interstitial fluid § Blood plasma § Cerebrospinal fluid o Cellular secretions § Substances that aid in digestion • Intestinal and gastric fluids § Lubricants • Saliva • Mucus • Serous fluids o Extracellular matrix § “cell glue”, holds body cells together § jellylike substance composed of proteins and polysaccharides • Plasma/Cell Membrane o Separates intracellular fluid from extracellular fluid o Selectively permeable 3.2 The fluid mosaic model depicts the plasma membrane as a double layer of phospholipids with embedded proteins • Fluid mosaic model o Double layer o Protein molecules dispersed in it • Membrane lipids o Phospholipids § Hydrophilic head (polar) § Hydrophobic tail (nonpolar) o Glycolipids § Lipids with attached sugar groups § Found on the outer membrane surface § 5% of membrane lipids o cholesterol § 20% of membrane § polar region: hydroxyl group § non-polar region: fused ring system § stabilizes the membrane § buffers the fluidity • Membrane proteins o Integral § Transmembrane (spans whole membrane) § Hydrophobic and hydrophilic regions § Can have channels for transport of materials o Peripheral § Not embedded § Attach loosely on exterior Lecture Notes 8/26/16 Cell Theory 1. Cells are the basic structural and functional unit of living organisms 2. Organism’s activity depends on individual and collective activities of cells 3. Principle of complementarity: structure of cell (subcellular structures) determine its function 4. Continuity of life has a cellular basis Eukaryotes (3 major parts) 1. Nucleus 2. Cytoplasm 3. Plasma membrane ***Made up of Carbon, Hydrogen, Nitrogen, and Oxygen Diversity of Cells • So many different shapes because of different functions • Erythrocytes: red blood cells, transport oxygen • Fibroblasts: connective tissue • Epithelial cells: myocytes: muscle cells, help body parts and organs move • Adipose: fat cells, store nutrients • Macrophages: fight disease, ingest and digest foreign bodies • Nerve cells: gather information, control body functions • Sperm: reproduction Plasma membrane • Outer boundary • Separates intracellular space from extracellular space • Transports molecules in and out of cell Cytosol • Fluid stuff in cells • Vs cytoplasm: cytosol + all the organelles in the cytosol Cytoskeletal elements • Microtubules • Intermediate filaments • Gives cell structure • Aids in movement Centrioles • Forms mitotic spindles Nucleus • Brain of cell • Location of transcription Nuclear envelope • Separates nucleus insides (nucleoplasm) from the cytoplasm • Regulates transport in and out of nucleus • Double membrane • Outer membrane fuses with ER Nucleolus • Center of nucleus • Made of rRNA (ribosomal RNA) and proteins • Site of ribosomal subunit synthesis o Ribosomes made here Chromatin • In nucleus • DNA wrapped around histones Ribosomes • Site of protein translation • mRNAàchain of amino acids • free floating or attached to Rough Er Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum • site of lipid synthesis • site of steroid synthesis • drug detoxification • site of lipid metabolism Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum • membrane bound • ribosomes bind to it and translate protein into cavity of ER o here they can be modified and folded o primary structureàsecondaryàtertiaryàquaternary Golgi Apparatus • smooth stack of membrane stacks • more modification of proteins • package proteins • secreted in vesicles o secretion= released from the cell by exocytosis • “UPS” of the cell Mitochondria • majority of ATP synthesis here • powerhouse of the cell Lysosome • membrane sack • digestion here • acidic inside Peroxisome • most cells produce a lot of Hydrogen Peroxide as a byproduct o too much=dangerous • regulates it • detoxifying enzymes in it breakdown excess hydrogen peroxide What do cells do? • Segregate (separate interior from exterior) • Transport and digest (membrane trafficking) • Identify alien invaders (distinguish self from non-self) • Internal support (cytoskeleton) • Hold hands (cell to cell adhesion) • Communicate (between cells) • Build/remodel/demolish (protein synthesis and degradation) • Clone (mitosis and cytokinesis) Segregation by plasma membrane • Phospholipid bilayer • Amphipathic nature dictates assembly into bilayer o Amphipathic: has both hydrophilic and hydrophobic regions o Polar head: hydrophilic o Non-polar tail: hydrophobic • Can interact with water and fats • Structure of phospholipid: o 2 fatty acid chains § non-polar tail § hydrophobic o glycerol backbone o phosphorous containing group § polar head § hydrophilic o ****see figure 2.16 in textbook Phospholipid bilayer • only allows small or lipid soluble molecules in • cholesterol o buffers the fluidity o stabilizes the membrane o made in Smooth ER of liver or gonads o obtained in the diet (eggs, meat, cheese) o 4 interlocking hydrocarbon rings form a steroid o basis for all steroids formed in the body o increases the rigidity and decreases fluidity in high temperatures o increases fluidity in cold temperatures • glycolipids and glycoproteins o sugar group (glycogen) attached to a lipid (glycolipid) or a protein (glycoprotein) o glycocalyx: branching sugar groups attached to proteins facing extracellular space o role in cell recognition § macrophages recognize either your glycocalyx or a bacteria’s in order to know whether or not it is an invasive cell that should be destroyed o makes food taste yummy • integral proteins o transmembrane o hydrophobic and hydrophilic regions o embedded in the membrane • peripheral protein o attached to the outside of the membrane
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