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ANSC 2000 set 5

by: Kaitlyn Elliott

ANSC 2000 set 5 ANSC 2000 - 001

Kaitlyn Elliott

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Companion birds described as well as needs. This is the last set before the study guide for test 1.
Companion Animal Management
Carolyn E Huntington
Class Notes
animal, Science
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kaitlyn Elliott on Sunday August 28, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to ANSC 2000 - 001 at Auburn University taught by Carolyn E Huntington in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 11 views. For similar materials see Companion Animal Management in Animal Science at Auburn University.


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Date Created: 08/28/16
ANSC 2000 notes 5   Companion Birds Key Terms: 1. Feathers­ Feature unique to birds which are made of keratin, provide waterproof coloring, & arranged in tracts 2. Apteria­ Unfeathered areas 3. Calamus (quill)­ Hollow central stalk below the skin 4. Rachis­ part above the skin where barbs & barbules grow from & interlock for  waterproofing 5. Blood feathers­developing feathers 6. Contour feathers­ Feathers that cover body & give it shape & color including flight & tail feathers 7. Down feathers­ Feathers that are smaller, lack barbules, & insulate 8. Powder feathers­ feathers that are scattered throughout & grow continually; barbs from  these break down & powder keeps them clean 9. Uropygial glands­ glands at the base of the tail that secrete oily fluid that spreads over  feathers when preening 10. Beaks­Bones of upper maxilla & lower mandible & keratinized covering that grows  throughout the bird’s life 11. Rhinotheca­upper jaw 12. Gnathotheca­Lower jaw 13. Pneumatic bones­bones in legs & wings that are hollow & provide tiny air sacs to assist  in respiration 14. Proventriculus­part of the digestive system that secretes chemicals aiding in digestion 15. Gizzard­muscular stomach that grinds up food 16. Cloaca­Terminal end of digestion, reproductive, & urinary tract 17. Toys­tools important for entertainment & mental stimulation 18. Ascarids­Roundworms that affect any body system that develops diarrhea, anorexia, &  weight loss which can be common among birds with outside access 19. Aspergillosis­respiratory disease caused by fungus that grows readily in warm, moist  environment causing difficulty in breathing, loss of appetite, frequent drinking &  urination, cyanosis (blue gums) or sudden death 20. Beak disorders­caused by liver disease, vitamin D3 deficiency, soft food, malnutrition or  trauma 21. Chlamydiosis (psittacosis or parrot fever)­Zoonotic­transmissible to humans caused by  bacteria Chlamydid psittaci leading to conjunctivitis, breathing difficulty, sinusitis,  tremors, & death 22. Egg binding­obstruction of uterus or oviduct by an egg which is often the result of a diet  deficient of calcium 23. Gout­Common disease among humans, birds & reptiles where the blood level of uric acid exceeds ability of kidneys to remove it showing signs of enlarged, stiff & painful joints  causing birds to lack the ability to fly 24. Mites­Skin parasites that causes scaly legs & face by burrowing in skin; severe cases  cause deformed beak & interferes with eating & can sometimes result in scratches &  feather picking 25. Newcastle disease (avian distemper)­ Highly contagious virus with no treatment causing  birds to have symptoms like sneezing, coughing, nasal discharge, gasping for breath, or  dying _____________________________________________________________________________ Memorize: rd  Birds ranked 3  among pets kept in North America  Estimated 17.5 mill. pet birds in US  Claws require trimming when: - If begin pinching owner while perching on finger - If toes are being held up by the claw - If claw has begun to curl under  Common Toxicological Hazards: - Zinc, lead - Nicotine products - Inhalants - Avocado - Some Plants  Bird Breeds: 1. African Grey Parrots - Medium­sized birds - Life span 50­65 years  - Grey with white areas around the eyes & short red tail - High level of intelligence & good talking capabilities 2. Amazon Parrots - Medium­sized birds - Thick bodies & short wings - Life span: 20­30 years - Native to rainforests of Central & South America 3. Budgies - AKA budgerigars & parakeets - Native to Australia - Relatively small  - Often recommended for first time bird owners - Usually has green plumage on chest, green & black wings, & long tapered  tail - Heads are usually yellow with black lines but can be blue, violet & albino 4. Canaries - Type of finch - Origin from Canary, Madeira, & Azores Islands - Variety of colors & patterns - Small birds with life span of 6­16 years 5. Cockatiels - Closely related to cockatoos - Native to Australia - Small in size - Commonly have grey bodies with white patches on wings & yellow/white  faces with bright orange patches on cheeks - Life span: 18­30 years 6. Cockatoos - Native to Australia - Thought to be most lovable of all companion birds - Several varieties: Moluccan, Umbrella, Bare­eyed, Citron - Sizes vary from 12­26 in. - Primarily white birds with peach, salmon or yellow shading - Recognized by impressive crests - Life span: 75+ years 7. Conures - Range in size from small to medium - Originated from Central & South America - Variety of colors - Largest family of parrots 8. Eclectus Parrots - From South Pacific Islands - Male is green with yellowish beak & female is red with black beak  (specific to sex) - Life span: 30 years 9. Lovebirds - 9 species of small parrots of the genus Agopornis o 8 are native to Africa o 1 from Madagascar - 3 most common species are Peachfaces Lovebird, Masked Lovebird, &  Fischer’s Lovebird - Life span: 5­15 years 10. Macaws - Large birds - Native to South America - Common types include: blue & gold, green­winged, scarlet, military, &  hyacinth - Mini macaws are half the size - Life span: 75­100 years 11. Quaker (Monk) Parakeets - Natives of South America - Small bird - Green body with grey feathers on the neck & forehead oBlue is more rare - Life span: 25­30 years 12. Parrotlets (Dwarf Parrots) - Native to South America - In wild, nest in hollow trees - Small birds - Introduced in US in 1980s as pets - Smart birds that can learn tricks & to talk - Nicknamed “pocket parrots” - Life span: 20­30 years ______________________________________________________________________________ Important Information:  Most common order: Psittaciformes (includes >300 species) - Ex.: Parrots, Macaws, & cockatoos  Also, order Passeriforms - Ex.:Finches, canaries Anatomy & Physiology  Blood feathers are replaced regularly by molting as they become worn (once or twice a  year depending on species)  Molting occurs in most species 2­3 weeks a year - Except Amazon parrot that molts year­round - Molting starts at the head & neck finishing with the tail & wing feathers  Hard & sharp edges of beaks crush items before swallowing  Nostrils are found at the base & top mandible  Lightweight bones allow birds to fly  Lungs are paired, not lobulated like mammals  No diaphragm present  8 air sacs which facilitate air movement through respiratory tract - Many extend into pneumatic bones  Two­part stomach  Warm­blooded (normal: 106 degrees F)  Four­chambered heart - Aorta reaches right side while it reaches left in humans - Beats much faster than humans  Males have 2 internal testes located above kidneys that produce spermatozoa &  testosterone  Psittacine birds don’t have phallus - Requires cloacal contact for sperm transfer  In most females, only left ovary & oviduct are functional - Spermatozoa fertile in funnel portion of left oviduct - Egg travels through oviduct & remains in uterus for 20­26 hrs. before passing  through cloaca  Nutrition deficiencies are leading cause of disease among birds  Require protein, fat CHO, vitamins & minerals  Due to high metabolism rate, they require more food per unit of body weight than larger  animals  Birds originated from tropical areas with large range of fruits & seeds (natives to arid  regions, eat seeds mostly)  Well­balanced diet for most includes fresh veggies, fruits, grains, nuts, pellets & fortified  seeds  Increasingly popular to hand raise neonatal birds to increase bonding with people  Newly hatched birds fed 4­8 times a day consuming 25­28% of body weight for first 4  days (15% of body weight by 12 days)  By 3­4 weeks, fed 3 times a day  Weaning done once bird has started to eat on its own (12 weeks) Husbandry:  Select cage large enough for them to stretch their wings & exercise themselves without  harm  Head shouldn’t touch top of cage nor should tail touch bottom or sides   Vertical bars good to hold canaries & other nonclimbers  Horizontal bars good for cockatiels, lovebirds, parakeets & other climbers  Perches shouldn’t allow birds toes to wrap around completely   - Placed in front of seed & water hoppers  Place as high as possible while still allowing view of the bird to be possible (birds like to  be high)  Never place in front of window with direct sunlight due to risk of heatstroke & avoid  drafty areas such as near open door & windows  Clean cage bottom every 2­3 days (newspaper makes it easy) - Scrub cage bottom with soapy water & diluted bleach every 2 weeks  Provide fresh water at all times (dehydrate very easy, especially under stress)  Hoppers are great for smaller birds while water bottles are preferred for bigger birds  Clean hoppers & bottles daily even if it’s not visibly dirty to avoid bacteria resulting in  sick bird  Birds left without toys can become bored & develop unwanted behaviors like screeching  & feather plucking  Toys include: - Ladders - Bells - Swings - Mirrors - Hard plastic toys  Aviaries are an option for those who live in areas with milder winters  Required time, money, space so birds can fly freely & interact with environment   Often divided in 3 parts: - Completely enclosed night shelter - Open flight area - Partially covered flight area  Use caution with plants  Claws maintained using different­sized perches & toys that require bird to grab hold  Beaks maintained by cuttlebone, mineral blocks or lava rock - Chewing on these keeps beak in condition & wears down new growth  Clipping flight feathers is painless & keeps bird from flying away during training - Still able to fly short distances - New flight feathers will be replaced during molting  Birds love water & taking baths - Consider bird bath inside cage for smaller birds - Ceramic dog bowl for larger birds - Mist birds with lukewarm water as well - Make sure to keep them dry & draft­free afterwards  Can get bacterial infections, cancer, internal parasites & hormonal disorders


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