ANSC 2000 set 5
ANSC 2000 set 5 ANSC 2000 - 001
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kaitlyn Elliott on Sunday August 28, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to ANSC 2000 - 001 at Auburn University taught by Carolyn E Huntington in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 11 views. For similar materials see Companion Animal Management in Animal Science at Auburn University.
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Date Created: 08/28/16
ANSC 2000 notes 5 Companion Birds Key Terms: 1. Feathers Feature unique to birds which are made of keratin, provide waterproof coloring, & arranged in tracts 2. Apteria Unfeathered areas 3. Calamus (quill) Hollow central stalk below the skin 4. Rachis part above the skin where barbs & barbules grow from & interlock for waterproofing 5. Blood feathersdeveloping feathers 6. Contour feathers Feathers that cover body & give it shape & color including flight & tail feathers 7. Down feathers Feathers that are smaller, lack barbules, & insulate 8. Powder feathers feathers that are scattered throughout & grow continually; barbs from these break down & powder keeps them clean 9. Uropygial glands glands at the base of the tail that secrete oily fluid that spreads over feathers when preening 10. BeaksBones of upper maxilla & lower mandible & keratinized covering that grows throughout the bird’s life 11. Rhinothecaupper jaw 12. GnathothecaLower jaw 13. Pneumatic bonesbones in legs & wings that are hollow & provide tiny air sacs to assist in respiration 14. Proventriculuspart of the digestive system that secretes chemicals aiding in digestion 15. Gizzardmuscular stomach that grinds up food 16. CloacaTerminal end of digestion, reproductive, & urinary tract 17. Toystools important for entertainment & mental stimulation 18. AscaridsRoundworms that affect any body system that develops diarrhea, anorexia, & weight loss which can be common among birds with outside access 19. Aspergillosisrespiratory disease caused by fungus that grows readily in warm, moist environment causing difficulty in breathing, loss of appetite, frequent drinking & urination, cyanosis (blue gums) or sudden death 20. Beak disorderscaused by liver disease, vitamin D3 deficiency, soft food, malnutrition or trauma 21. Chlamydiosis (psittacosis or parrot fever)Zoonotictransmissible to humans caused by bacteria Chlamydid psittaci leading to conjunctivitis, breathing difficulty, sinusitis, tremors, & death 22. Egg bindingobstruction of uterus or oviduct by an egg which is often the result of a diet deficient of calcium 23. GoutCommon disease among humans, birds & reptiles where the blood level of uric acid exceeds ability of kidneys to remove it showing signs of enlarged, stiff & painful joints causing birds to lack the ability to fly 24. MitesSkin parasites that causes scaly legs & face by burrowing in skin; severe cases cause deformed beak & interferes with eating & can sometimes result in scratches & feather picking 25. Newcastle disease (avian distemper) Highly contagious virus with no treatment causing birds to have symptoms like sneezing, coughing, nasal discharge, gasping for breath, or dying _____________________________________________________________________________ Memorize: rd Birds ranked 3 among pets kept in North America Estimated 17.5 mill. pet birds in US Claws require trimming when: - If begin pinching owner while perching on finger - If toes are being held up by the claw - If claw has begun to curl under Common Toxicological Hazards: - Zinc, lead - Nicotine products - Inhalants - Avocado - Some Plants Bird Breeds: 1. African Grey Parrots - Mediumsized birds - Life span 5065 years - Grey with white areas around the eyes & short red tail - High level of intelligence & good talking capabilities 2. Amazon Parrots - Mediumsized birds - Thick bodies & short wings - Life span: 2030 years - Native to rainforests of Central & South America 3. Budgies - AKA budgerigars & parakeets - Native to Australia - Relatively small - Often recommended for first time bird owners - Usually has green plumage on chest, green & black wings, & long tapered tail - Heads are usually yellow with black lines but can be blue, violet & albino 4. Canaries - Type of finch - Origin from Canary, Madeira, & Azores Islands - Variety of colors & patterns - Small birds with life span of 616 years 5. Cockatiels - Closely related to cockatoos - Native to Australia - Small in size - Commonly have grey bodies with white patches on wings & yellow/white faces with bright orange patches on cheeks - Life span: 1830 years 6. Cockatoos - Native to Australia - Thought to be most lovable of all companion birds - Several varieties: Moluccan, Umbrella, Bareeyed, Citron - Sizes vary from 1226 in. - Primarily white birds with peach, salmon or yellow shading - Recognized by impressive crests - Life span: 75+ years 7. Conures - Range in size from small to medium - Originated from Central & South America - Variety of colors - Largest family of parrots 8. Eclectus Parrots - From South Pacific Islands - Male is green with yellowish beak & female is red with black beak (specific to sex) - Life span: 30 years 9. Lovebirds - 9 species of small parrots of the genus Agopornis o 8 are native to Africa o 1 from Madagascar - 3 most common species are Peachfaces Lovebird, Masked Lovebird, & Fischer’s Lovebird - Life span: 515 years 10. Macaws - Large birds - Native to South America - Common types include: blue & gold, greenwinged, scarlet, military, & hyacinth - Mini macaws are half the size - Life span: 75100 years 11. Quaker (Monk) Parakeets - Natives of South America - Small bird - Green body with grey feathers on the neck & forehead oBlue is more rare - Life span: 2530 years 12. Parrotlets (Dwarf Parrots) - Native to South America - In wild, nest in hollow trees - Small birds - Introduced in US in 1980s as pets - Smart birds that can learn tricks & to talk - Nicknamed “pocket parrots” - Life span: 2030 years ______________________________________________________________________________ Important Information: Most common order: Psittaciformes (includes >300 species) - Ex.: Parrots, Macaws, & cockatoos Also, order Passeriforms - Ex.:Finches, canaries Anatomy & Physiology Blood feathers are replaced regularly by molting as they become worn (once or twice a year depending on species) Molting occurs in most species 23 weeks a year - Except Amazon parrot that molts yearround - Molting starts at the head & neck finishing with the tail & wing feathers Hard & sharp edges of beaks crush items before swallowing Nostrils are found at the base & top mandible Lightweight bones allow birds to fly Lungs are paired, not lobulated like mammals No diaphragm present 8 air sacs which facilitate air movement through respiratory tract - Many extend into pneumatic bones Twopart stomach Warmblooded (normal: 106 degrees F) Fourchambered heart - Aorta reaches right side while it reaches left in humans - Beats much faster than humans Males have 2 internal testes located above kidneys that produce spermatozoa & testosterone Psittacine birds don’t have phallus - Requires cloacal contact for sperm transfer In most females, only left ovary & oviduct are functional - Spermatozoa fertile in funnel portion of left oviduct - Egg travels through oviduct & remains in uterus for 2026 hrs. before passing through cloaca Nutrition deficiencies are leading cause of disease among birds Require protein, fat CHO, vitamins & minerals Due to high metabolism rate, they require more food per unit of body weight than larger animals Birds originated from tropical areas with large range of fruits & seeds (natives to arid regions, eat seeds mostly) Wellbalanced diet for most includes fresh veggies, fruits, grains, nuts, pellets & fortified seeds Increasingly popular to hand raise neonatal birds to increase bonding with people Newly hatched birds fed 48 times a day consuming 2528% of body weight for first 4 days (15% of body weight by 12 days) By 34 weeks, fed 3 times a day Weaning done once bird has started to eat on its own (12 weeks) Husbandry: Select cage large enough for them to stretch their wings & exercise themselves without harm Head shouldn’t touch top of cage nor should tail touch bottom or sides Vertical bars good to hold canaries & other nonclimbers Horizontal bars good for cockatiels, lovebirds, parakeets & other climbers Perches shouldn’t allow birds toes to wrap around completely - Placed in front of seed & water hoppers Place as high as possible while still allowing view of the bird to be possible (birds like to be high) Never place in front of window with direct sunlight due to risk of heatstroke & avoid drafty areas such as near open door & windows Clean cage bottom every 23 days (newspaper makes it easy) - Scrub cage bottom with soapy water & diluted bleach every 2 weeks Provide fresh water at all times (dehydrate very easy, especially under stress) Hoppers are great for smaller birds while water bottles are preferred for bigger birds Clean hoppers & bottles daily even if it’s not visibly dirty to avoid bacteria resulting in sick bird Birds left without toys can become bored & develop unwanted behaviors like screeching & feather plucking Toys include: - Ladders - Bells - Swings - Mirrors - Hard plastic toys Aviaries are an option for those who live in areas with milder winters Required time, money, space so birds can fly freely & interact with environment Often divided in 3 parts: - Completely enclosed night shelter - Open flight area - Partially covered flight area Use caution with plants Claws maintained using differentsized perches & toys that require bird to grab hold Beaks maintained by cuttlebone, mineral blocks or lava rock - Chewing on these keeps beak in condition & wears down new growth Clipping flight feathers is painless & keeps bird from flying away during training - Still able to fly short distances - New flight feathers will be replaced during molting Birds love water & taking baths - Consider bird bath inside cage for smaller birds - Ceramic dog bowl for larger birds - Mist birds with lukewarm water as well - Make sure to keep them dry & draftfree afterwards Can get bacterial infections, cancer, internal parasites & hormonal disorders