BIOS_1300.pdf BIOS 1300
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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Samantha Ragland on Sunday August 28, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BIOS 1300 at Ohio University taught by Dr. Foster in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 212 views. For similar materials see Human Anatomy and Physiology in Biological Sciences at Ohio University.
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Date Created: 08/28/16
BIOS 1300 Week 1 1.1 • Anatomy is the study of the structure of organisms and their relationships to each other • Physiology is the study of function • There are different divisions of anatomy; gross anatomy and microscopic anatomy o Gross Anatomy- Structures that are visible to the naked eye § This includes inspection, palpation, auscultation, percussion, and dissection • Inspection- simply looking at the body’s initial appearance. • Palpation- Feeling a structure with your hands • Auscultation- listening to the natural sounds made by the body. • Percussion- Tapping the body, feeling for abnormal resistance. • Dissection- Carefully cutting and separating tissues to reveal their relationships o Microscopic Anatomy- Study of anatomy using optical aids § These are what we use when we cannot see something with the naked eye • Histology- The study of tissue • Histopathology- Microscopic examination of tissues for signs of disease. • Cytology- The study of the structure and function of individual cells • Ultrastructure- Refers to fine detail, down to the molecular level. 1.3 1.5 • Atom -> Molecule -> Macromolecule -> Organelle -> Cell -> Tissue -> Organ ->Organ system -> Organism o Organism- a single, complete individual o Organ system- a group of organs with a unique collective function § Circulation, respiration, digestion 2 o Organ- a structure composed of two or more tissue types that work together to carry out a particular function o Tissue- a mass of similar cells and cell product that forms a discrete region of an organ and preforms a specific function § The body is composed of only four primary classes of tissue • Epithelial, connective nervous, and muscular o Cells- the smallest units of an organism that carry out all the basic functions of life o Organelles- Microscopic structures in a cell that carry out its individual functions § Mitochondria, centrioles, lysosomes 1.6 • A collection of properties distinguishes living and nonliving things o Organization, Cellular composition, metabolism, responsiveness and movement, homeostasis, development, reproduction, and evolution. § Cellular composition- Living matter is always compartmentalized into one or more cells § Metabolism- the sum of all this internal chemical change • Anabolism- relatively complex molecules are synthesized from simpler ones • Catabolism- relatively complex molecules are broken down into simpler ones § Responsiveness and movement- The ability of organisms to sense and react to stimuli (changes in their environment) 3 § Homeostasis- the ability of organ systems to coordinate the body function to maintain equilibrium when faced with an external disturbance § Development- Any change in form or function over the lifetime of the organism • Differentiation- the transformation of cells with no specialized function into cells that are committed to a particular task • Growth- an increase in size § Reproduction- Organisms produce copies of themselves § Evolution- Living species adapt to their new and changing environments to survive o Homeostasis examples 4 o o Gradient- a difference in chemical concentration, electrical charge, physical pressure, temperature, or other cariable between one point and another § Pressure gradient- from a region of high pressure to low pressure § Concentration gradient- distribution of molecules is higher on more side vs. the other side. The sides are often divided by a membrane § Electrical gradient- different voltage form one side to another. Difference in the amount of charged particles § Thermal gradient- temperature differences Terminology • Body Position o Anatomical position- Position of body standing with palms outward 5 o Supine- Position of body lying face up o Prone- Position of body lying face down • Planes of Section o Coronal plane/ frontal plane- A plane that passes side-to-side through the body, dividing it into anterior and posterior o Oblique plane- A slanted plane, that passes thought the body o Sagittal plane- Plane that passes from front to back dividing into right and left portions o Transverse plane- passes perpendicular and makes superior and inferior portions • Directional Terms o Anterior- toward front of the body o Deep- Away from surface (inside body) o Distal- Farther from trunk of origin o Inferior- downward o Superior- upward o Lateral- away from midline of body o Medial- toward midline of body o Posterior- toward back of body o Proximal-closer to trunk o Superficial- toward surface of body 6 o 7