PPD 225 NOTES WEEK 1
PPD 225 NOTES WEEK 1 PPD 225
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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Isaac Lemus on Sunday August 28, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PPD 225 at University of Southern California taught by Yan Tang in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 73 views. For similar materials see Public Policy and Management in PPD at University of Southern California.
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Date Created: 08/28/16
PPD 225 Lecture Notes 8/23 ● Okay, so what is Public Policy and Management? Well, it’s how we solve public issues. When a problem arises, governments create law/mandates/grants (policy) then state and local governments go about implementing these said laws/mandates (Management). So, at its basic structure, it’s a twofold process of setting goals and priorities then coordinating ways of fulfilling those goals ● Well, what exactly is government? Governments aren’t just one organizations. In the U.S. alone we have a federal government, 50 state governments,1000+ local governments as well as countless community governments (school boards, Businesses, Etc.) All in all, there are approximately 89000 governments in the U.S. with 4300 in California ● But Public Policy isn’t just the governments job. Society has to chip in too. Sure the government can supply money but more steps need to be taken to solve a problem. Take homelessness for example. Besides money, society and communities also have to examine social, psychological, cultural, and networking issues as well. ● So the government doesn’t work alone. It can rely on business and nonprofit organizations. For example, there are two basic types of cities. First is foodservice cities: cities that can provide its own water, power, food, trash service, etc., to its residents. It’s selfsufficient (Los Angeles, Long Beach, Glendale). Then there’s contract cities: smallmedium cities that don’t/can’t provide direct services. So what do they do? They manage contracts with other companies/entities/cities to thrive. ● To wrap things up, public policy focuses on getting people to work together. Governments need to utilize “self interest rightly understood”, the idea that humans are inherently self interested and mostly work to improve their own lives. Therefore, governments need to find a way to balance people helping themselves and helping the community. ● Independent Reading: Chapter 1 & 2 of ‘Bureaucracy: What Government Agencies Do and Why They Do It’ by James Wilson Lecture Notes 8/25: Critical Tasks and Rules ● What is a critical task? Think of it like this. First you have a goal (it can be for an individual, organization, society, etc.) then the critical tasks are the exact method of completing this goal, which is unique to each circumstance. Example, A wealthy community police station and an urban police station want to create law and order but they approach the situation in different ways according to their environment and circumstances. ● When looking to tackle an issue or situation follow these three steps; Define the critical taskscreate a sense of mission for those involvedHave a certain degree of autonomy and independence for each person/branch/limit. ● From an economic standpoint, you have three factors of production: land, labor, and capital. But with public policy you need rules to actually implement these components. ● When establishing rules, take a look at these factors and the role they play with creating unique standards ○ Individual preferences and abilities ○ Behavior ○ Patterns of interaction ○ Both informal and formal rules, environment (literal, technical, cultural.), Cultural or social contexts ○ Constraints, incentives, and opportunities ● Basic rule making principles ○ Don’t make rules that are highly unreasonable. Tailer rules according to the people you are trying to affect. ○ Make the rules precise with clear instructions. Avoid vagueness where people can be confused. ○ Create a sense of mission so that informal rules begin to develop informal rules ○ With #3 will come widespread expectations, find a way to make everyone identify with the rules. ○ Create enforcements that are consistent and reasonable so that everything stays stable without the need of punishment ● Independent Reading: Chapter 1 of American Public Policy: Promise and Performance by B. Guy Peters
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