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## Chapter 1 and 2

by: Jordan Hightower

16

4

7

# Chapter 1 and 2 psy 2110

Jordan Hightower
Ohio

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These notes are from the first week of class
COURSE
Statiatics for behavioral sciences
PROF.
Xiaoxia Song
TYPE
Class Notes
PAGES
7
WORDS
KARMA
Free

## Popular in Psychology And Social Behavior

This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Jordan Hightower on Sunday August 28, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to psy 2110 at Ohio University taught by Xiaoxia Song in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 16 views. For similar materials see Statiatics for behavioral sciences in Psychology And Social Behavior at Ohio University.

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Date Created: 08/28/16
Chapter 2: Basic Statistical Concepts  Variables are anything that can take on more than one specific value  Ex: Hair color, age, gender Distinctions for Variables  Discrete Variables vs. Continuous Variables  Independent Variables vs. Dependent Variables  Discrete Variable   Variables that have a small set of possible values   **Always in whole numbers  Ex: Number of children, number of hotdogs sold  Dichotomous Variable is a type of discrete variable that only has two possible categories Ex: Male/Female, True/False, Yes/No Continuous Variable   Variables that can take any value   **Allows fractional amounts and decimals Ex: Weight, Time, Age  Independent Variable (IV) (Quantitative or Qualitative)  The variable that is being measured Dependent Variable (DV) (usually quantitative)   The variable that is being measured Measurement   The assignment of numbers to objects/people Ex: Score on a final exam  Scales of measurement o Characteristics of relations among numbers assigned to objects o How numbers describe objects (generally, orderly, relatively) 4 Scales of Measurement   Nominal   Ordinal  Interval  Ratio Nominal   Numbers used only to distinguish among objects o Simply labels items  Simply categorizes and classifies information  Ex: Gender 1=Male  2=Female  The numbers themselves have nothing to do with the meaning, they are just simply labels Ordinal  Numbers used only to place objects in order  Rankings the observations in terms of size of magnitude along continuum  Ex: Freshman, Sophomore, Junior, Senior   One cannot assume the differences between the values are equal  Has properties of nominal scale  Interval  Scale where equal intervals between objects represent equal differences o The differences are meaningful  Allows for negative numbers  This scale has no true zero point Ration  Same as interval scale but with a true/absolute value  True Zero Point o Point that corresponds to the absence of the thing being measured   No negative numbers  Ratios are meaningful  Ex: A 20 lb weight is twice as heavy as a 10 lb weight  Random Sample vs. Random Assignment Random Sampling   How you select you sample  o Make sure every member of the population has an equal chance of being included  in the sample Random Assignment   How you assign individuals in the sample to your groups   Every member of the sample has an equal chance of being assigned to any of the groups  in the experiment  Summation Notation  ∑ (Sigma) is the symbol for summation ∑X= Sum of the values of X (X 1X +X2+X 3 n ∑(X ) = Sum of the squared values of X (X +X +X +X ……)  2 1 2 3 n 2 (∑X ) = Squared sum of the values of X (X +X +X +X +X ….) 2 1 2 3 4 n ∑XY= Sum of the values of X times the values of Y (X 1Y ) 1 (X +Y2) + 2X +Y )3 3 ∑X∑Y= Sum of the values of X times the sum of the values of Y (X 1X +X2…)(3 +Y +Y1) 2 3… Constants (C) is an actual number  The Order for Summation   Parenthesis  Exponential   Multiplication/Division  Summation using ∑ notation  All of addition and subtraction  ∑(X­Y)=∑X­∑Y The sum of X minus Y will equal the sum of X minus the sum of X ∑CX=C∑X The sum of X times C will equal C times the sum of X ∑(X+C)=∑X+NC The score of X plus C will equal the sum of X plus the number of scores (N)  times C Chapter 1: Introduction Data is any information  Just having a bunch of unorganized data is not very useful Statistics is a set of rules for large quantities General  Set of procedures and rules used to reduce large amounts of data into more useful forms Specific  The outcome of the application of those rules and procedures to samples of data Descriptive Statistics   Procedures for organizing and summarizing data Describe  The sample data without drawing any inferences about the larger population  Descriptive  What score did we obtain? Tables or Graphs  Are the scores generally high or low? Average  Are the scores close together? Variability   How does any one score compare to others? Standardized Score  Variability is how much they vary or differ from one another  Inferential Statistics   Procedures that are used for making differences about the characteristics of a group based on the date you have sampled from a smaller subset of that group  **Used when it is hard to get information from a group  Characteristics is what you’re interested in knowing about a group Population  Complete set of events that you are interested in examining   Contains all possible members or scores  Parameters is numerical values summarizing population date Sample is the subset of the population   Set of actual observations  Use the sample to infer something about population Statistics vs. Parameters Statistics are numerical values that summarize sample data Parameters are numerical values that summarize the population data Collecting Sample Data  Representativeness of Sample  To draw conclusions, the sample must accurately represent the population A Random Sample**  A sample in which each member of the population has an equal chance of inclusion  Process of selecting sample from a population Convenience Sampling  PsychPool Types of Data Data Information to which you can attach some meaning  2 main types of numerical data  Measurement data (quantitative)  Categorical data (qualitative) Measurement Data  Data obtained by measuring objects or events  o Ex: Height, Weight, Scores, Time Categorical Data  Representing counts or numbers of observations in each category  o Ex: Measure individual’s height (measurement) Differences vs. Relationships Differences between smokers and non­smokers in life expectancy  Relationships between number of cigarettes smoked per day and life expectancy

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