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Statistical Reasoning Class Notes Chapter 1

by: Natalie Land

Statistical Reasoning Class Notes Chapter 1 STC 103

Marketplace > University of Miami > Communications > STC 103 > Statistical Reasoning Class Notes Chapter 1
Natalie Land
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About this Document

This is a detailed week of notes from our class chapter 1, will come in handy for the quiz in a week!
Statistical Reasoning for Strategic Communication
Bo Ra Yook
Class Notes
Math, Stats, Calc, Calculus, notes, communication, STC103




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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Natalie Land on Sunday August 28, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to STC 103 at University of Miami taught by Bo Ra Yook in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 72 views. For similar materials see Statistical Reasoning for Strategic Communication in Communications at University of Miami.


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Date Created: 08/28/16
Statistical  Reasoning:  Chapter  One:  Class  Notes     •   What  is  research?   o   Systematic  investigation  of  phenomena  that  leads  to  understand  and  predict   outcomes     §   Academic  research  guided  by  a  theory:  first  you  select  the  methodology,   then  how  will  they  analyze  date,  and  use  academic  research     §   Always  tests  a  hypothesis:  then  results  and  then  discussion  of  results     o   Begin  with  a  problem/question/purpose     §   How  many  people  are  attending  class?   §   What’s  a  popular  class?   o   Relational:  some  things  are  related  but  not  necessarily  x  causes  y   o   Casual:  x  does  cause  y     o   Research  question:  what  is  the  most  popular  auto  brand?   §   Statement  of  the  problem   o   Hypothesis:  testable  prediction  based  on  theory  or  observation:  (relational)     o   Research  method:  strategy  plan  and  activity  to  accomplish  research   §   How  to  test  a  hypothesis     o   Quantitative:  objective,  systematic,  controlled     §   Can  be  generalized  uses  numbers  plus  discrete  units     o   Qualitative:  specific  to  case,  each  case  is  unique,  cannot  be  generalized     §   Ie:  UM  freshman  r  more  international  students  from  Europe  than  from   Africa  and  how  those  feel  is  different  from  how  the  other  ones  feel     o   Quantitative:   §   Descriptive:  seeing  things  as  they  are  no  manipulation   •   Surveys,  polls     §   Experimental:  manipulation  to  see  if  something  different  occurs     §   Why  quantitative  rather  than  qualitative   •   Because  social  sicence  we  want  to  replicate  the  experiment  in   different  target  audiences     •   Apply  findings  to  different  studies     •   Chose  method  based  on  research  objective  and  what  you  want  to   know     •   Understand  the  advantages  vs  disadvantages   o   Maybe  one  type  of  research  method  is  cheaper  than  the   other     §   Phenomena:  any  object  or  event  explained  how  you  explain  event  or   what’s  going  on     §   Variable:  observable  characteristic       •   Independent  variable:  the  variable  that  represents  the  cause  of   the  dependent  variable     o   Naturally  occurring     o   Age,  biological  sex     o   What  we  manipulate     o   Color  credibility     o   IV  causes  an  effect     •   Dependent  variable:  outcome,  the  effect  of  the  Independent   variable     o   Perceived  reputation     o   Variable  the  researcher  tries  to  explain     o   There  is  behaviorial  which  is  like  retweets  or  number  of   calls  your  getting     o   Attitudanal:brand  preference:  trust  relationship  reputation   •   Iv  causes  the  DV     •   IV  will  cause  the  DV     o   When  people  like  the  brand  :  iv     o   More  likely  to  purchase:  dv     •   What  is  data?   o   Reports  of  observation  of  variables     o   Data  reflects  something  measured     o   It  has  no  meaning  until  researchers  create  a  meaningful  system  of  interpretation   o   Has  to  be  measured     o   Has  to  be  reliable  plus  valid     §   Reliable:  same  results  over  time     §   Valid:  measuring  what  we  want  to  measure     o   Statistics:  a  branch  of  applied  math  that  specializes  in  procedures  for  describing   and  reasoning  from  measures     §   A  lot  of  procedures,  each  with  mathematical  deductions     o   What  is  a  measurement?     §   Links  observation  to  numbers     §   Data:  plural       §   Datum:  single  observation     §   Measurement  has  been  standardized     §   Social  science:  one  to  five  scale  or  one  to  ten     o   Physical  observation:  such  as  objective  amounts     §   ADVERTISING:  COST  PER  THOUSAND,  PLACEMENT  ON  PAGE,   IMPRESSIONS   §   PR:  NUMBER  OF  NEWS  CLIPS     §   FINANCIAL:  UNIT  SALES     o   Psychological:  cant  be  seen,  values  beliefs,  attitudes     o   Concepts  that  we  don’t  know  how  to  calculate     o   Stake  holder:  anyone  in  your  company,  employee  etc     o   Stock  holder:  owns  a  part  o  fthe  company   o   ROI:  return  on  investment,     •   Sampling   o   Large  numbers  (  public,  audience)  that  are  too  large  to  get  data  on  so  we  use   sample  of  entire  population   o   Population:  everyone  we  want  to  know  of:  total  set  of  units     §   The  entire  communication  school  students     §   Sample:  just  one  class     o   Sample:  subset  of  population   o   Descriptive  stats:  the  overall  population   o   Sampling:  calculated  values  that  represent  how  a  sample  characteristic  vary  from   the  population   o   Probabilistic  sampling  stats:  we  give  entire  population  the  same  opportunity  to   be  part  of  the  sample     o   Advantes     o   Measurement  error     o   Statistical  analysis:  decide  before  hand  what  procedure  to  use  and  what  criteria   is  involved  in  reasoning     o   Social  science:  accepted  only  five  percent  error.     o     •    


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