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Theories of Crime & Justice, Week 2

by: Newmancl

Theories of Crime & Justice, Week 2 CJ 3400 101

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These are Week 2's notes and will be a part of the first exam.
Theories of Crime and Justice
Dr. Molly Block
Class Notes
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This 8 page Class Notes was uploaded by Newmancl on Sunday August 28, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to CJ 3400 101 at Appalachian State University taught by Dr. Molly Block in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 5 views. For similar materials see Theories of Crime and Justice in Criminal Justice at Appalachian State University.


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Date Created: 08/28/16
NIBRS  National Incident Based Reporting System  Started in 1982 by the FBI to improve the UCR  Local Police provide an account of each incident and arrest which included: o Incident information o Victim information o Offender information  Included crimes than the UCR Self-report crime data  Participants (from sampling techniques) reveal information about their violations of the law  Helps to get at the dark figure of crime  Supplements and expands official data  Not conducted by federal agency every year o Several university-run annual or bi-annual studies  National youth survey o Tend to focus on juveniles  Why?  Validity and reliability are better than expected by many o How do researchers help achieve more valid and reliable data?  Anonymous data  Repeat questions o However, the accuracy for chronic offenders and substance abusers may be limited  Why? Limitations of data self report  Threats of validity o Over-reporting or under-reporting  Recall problems  Interviewer problems  Inadequate question format  Generalizability o Sampling errors o Limited variation in delinquent/criminal behavior How much Crime is there?  Violent Crime: 2013 o Estimated 1.16 million violent crimes occurred nationwide o Decrease of 4% since 2012 o 5 and 10-year trend  2013 violent crime total 12.3% below 2009 and 14.5% below 2005 o 369 violent crimes per 100,000 people Distribution of violent crime Aggravated assault 62.3% Robbery 29.7% Forcible rape 6.9% Homicide 1.2%  14,349 homicides in 2013, this is a 4.4% increase from 2012 but a 9.9% decrease from 2008 and 7.8% decrease compared to 2004  4.5 murder per 100,00 people  in 1991 we experienced the most homicides on record with 24,703 Use of firearms during the commission of violent crime UCR 2013  Homicides – 69%  Robberies – 40%  Aggravated Assault – 21.6% How much crime is there?  Property Crime: 2012 o Estimated 8.6 million property crime offenses o 4.1 decrease from 2012 o 10-year trend shows an 16.3% decrease o 2,730 offenses per 100,000 people o estimated loss from 2012 property crime = 16.6 Billion $  even though the number of property crimes is decreasing the value of loss is increasing Distribution of property crime  Larceny-theft 69.6%  Burglary 22.3%  Motor Vehicle Theft 8.1% What region in US had highest crime?  South has most property crime and violent crime Is there a relationship between the crime rate and time of year?  What months are most likely to have the highest crime rates? o July and August  Are certain crimes more likely to occur in certain months o Murder and robbery are more likely to occur in December and January  Is there a certain day in a month when crime is more likely to occur? o The first day of the month Criminal Victimization Trends  Violent victimization o 6.1 million violent victimizations o rate of 23.2 (decreased from 26.1 in 2012)  Most of this due to increase in simple assault o 10-year Trend  Since 1993, the violent victimization rate has declined from 80 to 23.2  Property Victimization o 16.8 million property victimization o Rate of 131.4 (increased from 155.8 in 2012) o 10-year trend  since 1993, the property crime rate has declined from 351.8 to 131.4 o in 2012, 46% of violent victimization were reported to the police and 61% of serious violent victimization Prevalence of Victimization in 2013  Gender o Male: 1.2% (12 years or older) o Female: 1.1% (12 years or older)  Race o White: 1.1% o Black: 1.3% o Hispanic: 1.3% o Asian: 0.4% NCVS based criminal activity and victimization trends  Data indicates that the number of people who break the law is far greater than official statistics  The decline in violent and property victimizations generally parallel changes in the official crime rates (since the early 1990s) What is the relationship between income and victimization?  Violent Victimization o Persons in low income households experience double the rate of violent victimization of high income households o Persons from low income households are more likely to offend – this relationship tends to be weaker  Property Victimization o Low income persons are more likely to be both victims and offenders then high income persons Crime Patterns  Are there any main traits and patterns across crime statistics that can help us understand the correlates the crime? o Race o Age o Gender o Social Class Understanding Disproportionality  Disproportionate o Showing a difference that is not fair, reasonable, or expected  Too large or too small in comparison to something US Populations Distribution  White: 62%  Black or African American: 12%  American Indian or Alaskan Native: 1%  Asian: 6% Age and Gender Correlates across crime measures  Age/Crime Relationship o UCR: committed by young, disproportionately o NCVS: Victims are disproportionally young  Victims also disp o OSR: Committed by young, disproportionately  Gender/Crime Relationship o UCR: Committed by males, disproportionately o NCVS: Males victimized, disproportionately  Victims also disproportionately male, though gender gap is smaller than it was at the start of the NCVS o OSR: Committed by males, disproportionately  Race/Crime Relationship o UCR: Committed by non-whites, disproportionately o NCVS: Non-whites more likely to be victimized  Victims also disproportionately non-white (especially violent crime victims, though the discrepancy between black and white victimization is smaller than it was at the start of the NCVS)  Class/Crime Relationship o UCR: Committed by poor, disproportionately o NCVS: No info available on social class offenders  Violent-crime victims disproportionately poor  Rich and poor more equally susceptible to property-crime victimization  OSR: no relationship between class and crime when non-serious offenses are measured; disp poor when “Most serious” offenses are measured Re-cap  Males commit more crime then females  Males are victimized more than females  Adolescents and young adults commit more crime than older individuals  Young people are more likely to be victimized then older people  Minorities overrepresented with the Criminal Justice System  Minorities are victimized, disproportionately compared to whites  Offenders are more likely to be poor then rich  Violent and property crime victims are more likely to be poor than rich


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