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History and Appreciation of Music Lecture Notes

by: melissa williams

History and Appreciation of Music Lecture Notes 1113

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These are all of the Notes that were provided in week 2 of the class for the first exam.
History & Appreciation of Music
Ryan Ross
Class Notes
Music, Lecture, Ryan, Ross
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by melissa williams on Sunday August 28, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 1113 at Mississippi State University taught by Ryan Ross in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 4 views. For similar materials see History & Appreciation of Music in Music at Mississippi State University.


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Date Created: 08/28/16
History and Appreciation of Music August 16, 2016 Elements of Music Melody- organized musical line; the tune  Does not have to be top voice Melodic Motion- the way the melody moves from note to note  Melodies move in steps, leaps, and repeated pitches o Step(half and whole)- a note next to another note Phrase- sections of melody Form- an organizing structure of a composition  May have few or many melodies Pitch- the exact highness or lowness of a note  To measure pitch, we use the first 7 letters of the alphabet, which repeat at higher frequencies. Interval- the space/ distance between any two pitches  Half or whole steps  Leaps (2 , 3 , 4 , etc.)  Octave- interval of the same pitch at consecutive frequencies Constant intervals- stable, restful sounds Dissonant intervals- unstable, unrestful Sharp (#) - alters a pitch a half-step up Flat (b) – alters a pitch a half-step down Dynamics- levels of loudness or softness  Pppp-ffff  Crescendo- gradual increase in dynamic  Decrescendo/ diminuendo- gradual decrease in dynamic August 18, 2016 Elements of Music Cont. Rhythm- the organization of stressed beats; the elements of time in music  Beat- regular pulse of music  Notes- visual representation of pitch and rhythm  Rests- visual representation of silence Measure- grouping of beats, marked by bar lines  Meter- the number and length of beats in each measure  Duple meter- a meter that groups beats in sets divisible by 2 o Marches are always in duple meter o (1,2,1,2,1,2, etc.)  Triple meter- a meter that groups beats in sets divisible by 3 o A waltz is always in triple meter o (1,2,3,1,2,3, etc.) Time signature- a symbol representing a particular meter Irregular meter- a meter not fitting double or triple categories  (6/8) Syncopation- stress on weak beats or weak parts of beats  Counted (day ta day) Tempo- the speed at which a piece is played Harmony- the pitches supporting a melody  Harmony is built upon or related to scales  Only been around for 400 years  Western ideal Scale- a group of notes arranged in descending or ascending order, usually consisting of patterns of whole or half steps Chords- three or more different notes played together, intervals determined consonance/dissonance  Arpeggio- when notes of a chord are played separately instead of together  Tonic- the key note of a scale or chord Key/ mode- the tonality in which a piece is composed Texture- the way in which different musical sounds are combined  Monophony- a single, unaccompanied line or melody  Polyphony- two or more distinct, independent musical lines being sounded together August 23  Homophony- music that features a melodic line supported by chords (hierarchy)  Heterophony- the simultaneous variation of a single melodic line Form- the organizing structure of a piece of music  Binary- a from consisting of two sections (AB or AABB)  Ternary- a from consisting of three sections (ABA, ABA, or ABC) Theme and Variation- theme is varied in subsequent sections  Rondo (ABACA etc.)  Sonata (sonata-allegro)- elaborate ternary form Intro to Western Music History “Western”- Europe, America, Australia  Nations/lands that trace their history and culture back to Ancient Greece and Rome and also to Judo-Christian precepts Western Music History is often understood to mean ‘the history of Western “classical” music’ We are limited by our sources  For most of history, popular music has existed primarily in oral tradition and therefore survives in print less often that “art” music 6 General Periods of Western Music: 1. Medieval (ca. 400-1400) 2. Renaissance (ca. 1400-1600) 3. Baroque (ca. 1600-1750) 4. Classical (ca. 1750-1825) 5. Romantic (ca. 1825-1914) 6. 20 Century (ca. 1914-now)  Music history, like most history, is messy. Music in the Medieval Period Dark Ages?  Poverty, sickness, servitude, warfare  But also invention and preservation (music, science, agriculture) Feudalism  Kings and other elite nobles, served by knights and vassals, owned land and peasants/serfs work it The Supremacy of the Church  The church held power even greater than that of kings  It was arguably better to be a clergyman or monk even than to be a king  The church was involved in most of the art produced in the middle ages 2 Kinds of Music: 1. Liturgical music  Music for Christian worship during rituals of the mass and divine office 2. Secular Liturgical  Plainchant- vocal music for church services  Monophonic  Gregorian chant (dominant plainchant) is said to have been dictated to Pope Gregory I (ca.540-604) by the Holy Spirit through a Dove 3 Kinds of Chant: 1. Syllabic  One pitch for every syllable of text (sanctus, agnus, Dei)  Works well with long texts 2. Neumatic  A small number of pitches per syllable of text (credo, Gloria, etc.) 3. Melismatic  Many pitches per syllable of text (Kyric, Allulia) Modes-system of melodic organization used in medieval sacred music  All modes have final notes of D, E, F, or G.  4 main modes and 4 plagal modes Text of Plainchant  Mass-central act of worship in the catholic church, containing texts central to the faith  2 parts: o Ordinary o Proper  Specific rituals or events  Psalms/ Hymns (Divine Office) o Any one of the biblical 150 psalms o Specially composed hymns Medieval Notation Plainchant was originally an oral tradition.  First notation was not precise, and was only used as memory aids th (neums) beginning in the 9 century  Medieval church invented musical notation  Then a single line was used to denote one precise pitch, with neums placed in relation to it (11 century) th th  Only in the 13 and 14 century do we start to see pitches placed on full staves Hildegard von Bingen (ca. 1098-1179)  Abbess of a convent in Germany  Composed original plainchants  Said to have had visions from God  A great poet, musician, and scholar  Wielded uncommon power for a medieval woman  Feather on the Breath of God Secular Song in the Middle Ages  Troubadour song- monophonic, often strophic sons written and performed by troubadour in the courts of France o Songs often deal with courtly love, duty, friendship, etc.  Directions for instrumentation often do not survive in sources for troubadour songs  Trope (troping)- an embellishment upon the original plainchant o Types: 1. Prosula(e)  Adding words to preexisting chant


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