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Life 103 Biology of organisms week 1

by: Devrrae Russell

Life 103 Biology of organisms week 1 life 103

Marketplace > Colorado State University > life 103 > Life 103 Biology of organisms week 1
Devrrae Russell
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About this Document

theses notes cover phylogeny and cladistics
biology of organisms
Heather Baker Blackburn
Class Notes
Biology, Organismal Biology, organisms, Phylogenetics, Phylogeny, phylogenetic tree, #biology #biologicaldiversity #studyguide #viruses #speciation #phylogeny #cladistics




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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Devrrae Russell on Sunday August 28, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to life 103 at Colorado State University taught by Heather Baker Blackburn in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 16 views.


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Date Created: 08/28/16
Monday, August 22, 2016  Biology of Organisms Lecture 1  Office hours mondays and wednesdays 10:15­11:30 214 yates  Email ​  Exam tips:  ~ reading will help  ~ take hand notes  ~ be active and engaged   Note taking tips:  ~paraphrase  ~don’t just copy slides   ~ask questions  ~get figures off canvas  Study tips:  ~review material the same day  ~explain concepts out loud  ~rewrite, draw, act out process  ~look­up animations  ~ study groups   ~read text book  ~read optional material   ~use tilt tutoring   Wednesday, August 24, 2016  Phylogeny  Reading from chapter 26  Taxonomy ­ biological classification   ~ Aristotle grouped animals based on physical characteristics  ~ Carolunus Linnaeus developed a system closes to the taxonomy system used today of  hierarchy   ● Domain  ● Kingdom   ● Phyla   ● Class  ● Order   ● Family   ● Genus  ● Species     Phylogeny _evolutionary history ­ genealogy  ~ Ernst Haeckel ­ first phylogenetic tree of life ­ biological artist       Microbes have always been difficult for biologists to classify  1  ~thomas whittaker used five kingdoms   ~carl woese used rRNA sequences to infer evolutionary relationships  ● Revolutionized microbiology and phylogenies  ● Indicated that there were three main origins of life now called domains ( Bacteria,  Archaea, and Eukarya  ○ Bacteria ­ prokaryotic, diverse  ○ Archaea ­ prokaryotic, often in extreme environments  ○ Eukarya ­ eukaryotes  Represent hypothesized evolutionary history through a phylogenetic tree    Taxon ­ taxa ­ any level of classification  Sister taxa ­ more than 2 from same general ancestor  Basal taxon­ group that branched off first  Inferring evolutionary relationships  ~ analogies ­ analogous structures­similarities due to convergent evolution  ● Ex: succulent plants  ~morphological date  ● Homologies ­ homologous structures ­similarity due to shared ancestors  ● Molecular homologies ­ very similar sequences probably more relation  ○ Take into account insertion/deletions   ■ Different species have different mutations rates depending on  different factors and can change rate with time  ­ extra background knowledge research   Colonial bentgrass mine tailings   Polyploidy­ bananas  ● Computer analysis is most common method             2  Friday, August 26, 2016  Phylogeny (continued)  Cladistics are method used to infer phylogeny from homologies  ● Attempt to group into clades  ○ Clade­ monophyletic group­  common ancestors and all  descendants  ○ Paraphyletic group ­ common  ancestors and some but not not  all descendants  ○ Polyphyletic group­ common  ancestor not included   Shared ancestral character ­ t​ rait state shared  by two or more taxa ­​ ex: backbone in mammals    Shared derived character ­ ​trait state that  distinguishes a clade from other organisms  ​ ­  ex: hair in mammals  ● Used to infer relationship  Cladistics ­use to shared derived  character to group into hierarchy    Maximum parsimony ­ simplest  explanation (fewest evolutionary event  it takes to explain a specific set of  characteristics)    Maximum likelihood ­ when using DNA  sequences ­ uses probability rules for  different types of mutations to identify  the most likely phylogenetic tree    3    Basal group ­ ​Ancestral taxon      4 


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