Life 103 Biology of organisms week 1
Life 103 Biology of organisms week 1 life 103
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Devrrae Russell on Sunday August 28, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to life 103 at Colorado State University taught by Heather Baker Blackburn in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 16 views.
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Date Created: 08/28/16
Monday, August 22, 2016 Biology of Organisms Lecture 1 Office hours mondays and wednesdays 10:1511:30 214 yates Email email@example.com Exam tips: ~ reading will help ~ take hand notes ~ be active and engaged Note taking tips: ~paraphrase ~don’t just copy slides ~ask questions ~get figures off canvas Study tips: ~review material the same day ~explain concepts out loud ~rewrite, draw, act out process ~lookup animations ~ study groups ~read text book ~read optional material ~use tilt tutoring Wednesday, August 24, 2016 Phylogeny Reading from chapter 26 Taxonomy biological classification ~ Aristotle grouped animals based on physical characteristics ~ Carolunus Linnaeus developed a system closes to the taxonomy system used today of hierarchy ● Domain ● Kingdom ● Phyla ● Class ● Order ● Family ● Genus ● Species Phylogeny _evolutionary history genealogy ~ Ernst Haeckel first phylogenetic tree of life biological artist Microbes have always been difficult for biologists to classify 1 ~thomas whittaker used five kingdoms ~carl woese used rRNA sequences to infer evolutionary relationships ● Revolutionized microbiology and phylogenies ● Indicated that there were three main origins of life now called domains ( Bacteria, Archaea, and Eukarya ○ Bacteria prokaryotic, diverse ○ Archaea prokaryotic, often in extreme environments ○ Eukarya eukaryotes Represent hypothesized evolutionary history through a phylogenetic tree Taxon taxa any level of classification Sister taxa more than 2 from same general ancestor Basal taxon group that branched off first Inferring evolutionary relationships ~ analogies analogous structuressimilarities due to convergent evolution ● Ex: succulent plants ~morphological date ● Homologies homologous structures similarity due to shared ancestors ● Molecular homologies very similar sequences probably more relation ○ Take into account insertion/deletions ■ Different species have different mutations rates depending on different factors and can change rate with time extra background knowledge research Colonial bentgrass mine tailings Polyploidy bananas ● Computer analysis is most common method 2 Friday, August 26, 2016 Phylogeny (continued) Cladistics are method used to infer phylogeny from homologies ● Attempt to group into clades ○ Clade monophyletic group common ancestors and all descendants ○ Paraphyletic group common ancestors and some but not not all descendants ○ Polyphyletic group common ancestor not included Shared ancestral character t rait state shared by two or more taxa ex: backbone in mammals Shared derived character trait state that distinguishes a clade from other organisms ex: hair in mammals ● Used to infer relationship Cladistics use to shared derived character to group into hierarchy Maximum parsimony simplest explanation (fewest evolutionary event it takes to explain a specific set of characteristics) Maximum likelihood when using DNA sequences uses probability rules for different types of mutations to identify the most likely phylogenetic tree 3 Basal group Ancestral taxon 4
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