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Biology 2313: Week 1 Notes

by: Ednjon Parilla

Biology 2313: Week 1 Notes Biology 2313

Ednjon Parilla
GPA 3.9

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About this Document

Notes on lecture given Aug. 25th
Human Anatomy & Physiology II
Dr. Zaineb Al-Dahwi
Class Notes
Biology, Anatomy & Physiology II, The Blood
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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Ednjon Parilla on Sunday August 28, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Biology 2313 at University of Texas at El Paso taught by Dr. Zaineb Al-Dahwi in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 180 views. For similar materials see Human Anatomy & Physiology II in Science at University of Texas at El Paso.

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Date Created: 08/28/16
Chapter 17: Blood  Composition of Blood 1) Plasma (fluid matrix/ground substance)  55% of whole blood  Least dense component 2) Buffy Coat (whitish layer)  Leukocytes (white blood cells) and platelets  < 1% of whole blood 3) Erythrocytes (red blood cells)  45% of whole blood  Most dense component  General Facts  Blood = special type of connective tissue  Connective tissue is made up of: cellular substances, ground substance, and fibrous elements  Fibrous elements only occur during clotting  Blood is the only fluid tissue in the human body  pH of blood is more alkaline  Blood is more viscus (thicker) than water  Functions 1) Transport Function  Blood transports respiratory gases (found in plasma)  Oxygen; transported through blood  Carbon dioxide; goes from body tissues to lungs, and then out of the body through exhaling  Waste material (nitrogenous waste); transported from tissues from the whole body to kidneys  Hormones (chemical messengers from endocrine glands); transported to target organs 2) Regulatory Function  Body Temperature  Blood is the medium where heat is stored (also absorbs heat)  Movement of blood helps regulate because it’s close to the surface (skin)  pH  Proteins in blood acts as buffers which help prevent the sudden changes  Blood Volume  Water-loving proteins in our blood  Correct blood volume is important in cardiac output 3) Protection  Against infections with white blood cells (leukocytes) which are phagocytes  Phagocytes can engulf viruses, parasites, etc. (extremely important)  Formation of Blood Clot  Proteins in plasm convert into clot  Prevents more blood loss COMPONENTS: FURTHER EXPLAINED  Plasma/Fluid Matrix  Made of:  90% water o Synthesized in liver, moves to blood  8% plasma permanently proteins o Albumin: most abundant, maintains fluid volume, acts as carrier protein o Globulins  Alpha and Beta: carrier proteins  Gamma: antibodies, NOT PRODUCED IN THE LIVER o Fibrinogen: associated with blood clotting, converted to fibrin which threads the blood clot  Formed Elements 1) Some are incomplete cells  Examples:  Red blood cell doesn’t have any organelles  Platelets are cellular fragments 2) Has a short lifespan  Examples:  Average life of a red blood cell is 120 days  Platelets live 10-15 days unless they become involved in blood clotting 3) THESE CELLS DO NOT DIVIDE  All blood cells originate from red bone marrow which contains hemocytoblasts (stem cells that specifically produce blood cells)  Red blood cells are perfect examples for complementary of shape and function  Red Blood Cell  Contains hemoglobin = transports oxygen and carbon dioxide  Contains a cavity; no organelles  Small size provides best exchange of gas  97% is made of hemoglobin  Other proteins: Spectrin (on cytoplasmic membrane, can change shape which allows the red blood cell to squeeze into blood vessels)  RBC uses anaerobic respiration, meaning it does not use the oxygen it carries


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