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Week 1 notes

by: Mary-elizabeth Notetaker

Week 1 notes Bio 329

Mary-elizabeth Notetaker
U of L

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week 1 notes
Cellular Molecular Biology
Paul Himes
Class Notes
Biology, bio329, celllularbiology, molecularbiology, cellularmolecularbiology, Bio
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Mary-elizabeth Notetaker on Sunday August 28, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Bio 329 at University of Louisville taught by Paul Himes in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 33 views. For similar materials see Cellular Molecular Biology in Biology at University of Louisville.


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Date Created: 08/28/16
• Hypoth- testable,falsifiable,observable result ‣ Pp q1:E ⿞Positive control- what should work ⿞Neg control- what should not work • Animalacules- Size of molecules but move • Cell theory- schleiden & Schwann- ⿞all organisms made of one or more cells ⿞Cell is structural unit of life ‣ Arises by "spontaneous generation" ⿞Cells arise from pre existing cells by division • Cell props ⿞Cells are Highly complex and organized ‣ All have similar stx,composition,and molecular fx ⿞Cells posses genetic program and means to produce ⿞Capable of producing more of self ⿞Acquire and use energy ‣ Photosynthesis fuels all cells • Glucose -->ATP ⿞Carry out multiple chemical rxs ⿞Engage in mechanical activities ⿞Robust- can handle change ‣ Respond to own status,environment,neighbors,etc ⿞Evolve- LUCA is common ancestor of all ‣ "Last universal common ancestor" cell bio themes and chemistry • Karyon- nut • Prokaryotes- no organelles,bad & archae,unicellular,2.7 byo fossils • Eukaryotes- protists,animals,plants,fungi,unicellular and multicellular • Commonalities: ⿞similar plasma membrane ⿞Genetic code is universal ⿞Similar mechs to turn genes into action ‣ transcription/translation ⿞Shared metabolic pathways ‣ glycolysis ‣ TCA cycle ‣ Photosynth (similar) ‣ Similar ways to make energy(ATP) • Diffs: ⿞complexity: ‣ proks more simple ⿞Genetic material ‣ props:nucleotide region • smallest euk genome ~= to biggest prok genome • Biggest euks(trees/amoeba) >1000+X ‣ Euks:membrane bound nucleus ⿞Cytoplasm ‣ euks- membrance bound organelles ‣ Proks- none ⿞Reproduction ‣ euks:mitosis ‣ Proks:binary fission...Exchange DNA w/out reproduction ⿞Locomotion ‣ euks:cytoplasmic movement,cilia,flagella ‣ Proks:flagella(diff)...Slime extrusion,pulling with pi like • 2 classes,3 domains ⿞monera- fewer shapes than species(sphere,rod,spiral) ⿞sequence a single gene...Must be slowly evolving ‣ rDNA from small ribosomes • 3 distinct clusters ⿞protists,fungi,plantar,animalia all close ⿞2 groups of proks ⿞Domains ‣ archae • closer to euk than bac • Halophiles,acidophilus,thermophiles,methanogens(gut and elsewhere) ‣ Bac • Includes smallest known cells ⿞mycoplasma • cyanobac- photosynthetic...Some can fix Oxygen • Diversity of size and ability • Ubiquitous ⿞as much C in bac as in plants ⿞Some bac can use anything for food • mosaic genomes ⿞horizontal gene transfer(HGT) ‣ Euks • Ancient vs modern • Endosymbiosis theory- euks organelles used to be free-living proks ⿞mutually beneficial to have in one org • Unicellular- most euk cells,most complex cells • Multicellular ⿞differentiation- need diff cells to do diff things • Stem cells- undiff'd cells...Self renew ⿞adult stem cells can replace diseased/damaged adult tissue ⿞HSC- replace abated bone marrow ⿞Neuro stem cells- treat neurological disorders ⿞Embryonic stem cells(ES)- greater potential for differentiation(pluripotent) ‣ Must be done in vitro • teratoma- bad • Cell replacement therapy- iPS(induced pluripotent stem cells) ⿞reprogram diff cell into stem cell ⿞Corrects certain disease conds in model orgs ⿞Teratomas still problem ⿞Direct cell reprogramming • Synthetic bio- create living cell in lab ⿞Make existing orgs into something diff ⿞Give them traits to make new things ⿞Used for:meds,industry,environment ⿞Species reassignment therapy- replaced genome of bac w genome from closely related species • Viruses-intraellular obligate parasites ⿞virion- virus particle outside host cell ⿞Viral stx: ‣ Surface proteins bind specific host surface proteins(det's specificity) ‣ only certain viruses can interact w certain cells ⿞Lytic infection- host makes copies of virus and host loses ⿞Integration/loysogenic infection ‣ creates provirus by integrating own DNA into host DNA ⿞Bacteriophage- kill bacteria ‣ specific to host so noAAD ‣ Adenovirus- used in genetic engineering of euks ⿞Viriods- small pathogen,makes RNA mol..No proteins ⿞Prions • Chemistry of carbon • Special valence e- arrangement(can make 4 covalent bonds ) ⿞Functional groups-bits that give biochem S their characteristics


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