Week 1 notes
U of L
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Mary-elizabeth Notetaker on Sunday August 28, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Bio 329 at University of Louisville taught by Paul Himes in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 33 views. For similar materials see Cellular Molecular Biology in Biology at University of Louisville.
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Date Created: 08/28/16
• Hypoth- testable,falsiﬁable,observable result ‣ Pp q1:E Positive control- what should work Neg control- what should not work • Animalacules- Size of molecules but move • Cell theory- schleiden & Schwann- all organisms made of one or more cells Cell is structural unit of life ‣ Arises by "spontaneous generation" Cells arise from pre existing cells by division • Cell props Cells are Highly complex and organized ‣ All have similar stx,composition,and molecular fx Cells posses genetic program and means to produce Capable of producing more of self Acquire and use energy ‣ Photosynthesis fuels all cells • Glucose -->ATP Carry out multiple chemical rxs Engage in mechanical activities Robust- can handle change ‣ Respond to own status,environment,neighbors,etc Evolve- LUCA is common ancestor of all ‣ "Last universal common ancestor" cell bio themes and chemistry • Karyon- nut • Prokaryotes- no organelles,bad & archae,unicellular,2.7 byo fossils • Eukaryotes- protists,animals,plants,fungi,unicellular and multicellular • Commonalities: similar plasma membrane Genetic code is universal Similar mechs to turn genes into action ‣ transcription/translation Shared metabolic pathways ‣ glycolysis ‣ TCA cycle ‣ Photosynth (similar) ‣ Similar ways to make energy(ATP) • Diffs: complexity: ‣ proks more simple Genetic material ‣ props:nucleotide region • smallest euk genome ~= to biggest prok genome • Biggest euks(trees/amoeba) >1000+X ‣ Euks:membrane bound nucleus Cytoplasm ‣ euks- membrance bound organelles ‣ Proks- none Reproduction ‣ euks:mitosis ‣ Proks:binary ﬁssion...Exchange DNA w/out reproduction Locomotion ‣ euks:cytoplasmic movement,cilia,ﬂagella ‣ Proks:ﬂagella(diff)...Slime extrusion,pulling with pi like • 2 classes,3 domains monera- fewer shapes than species(sphere,rod,spiral) sequence a single gene...Must be slowly evolving ‣ rDNA from small ribosomes • 3 distinct clusters protists,fungi,plantar,animalia all close 2 groups of proks Domains ‣ archae • closer to euk than bac • Halophiles,acidophilus,thermophiles,methanogens(gut and elsewhere) ‣ Bac • Includes smallest known cells mycoplasma • cyanobac- photosynthetic...Some can ﬁx Oxygen • Diversity of size and ability • Ubiquitous as much C in bac as in plants Some bac can use anything for food • mosaic genomes horizontal gene transfer(HGT) ‣ Euks • Ancient vs modern • Endosymbiosis theory- euks organelles used to be free-living proks mutually beneﬁcial to have in one org • Unicellular- most euk cells,most complex cells • Multicellular differentiation- need diff cells to do diff things • Stem cells- undiff'd cells...Self renew adult stem cells can replace diseased/damaged adult tissue HSC- replace abated bone marrow Neuro stem cells- treat neurological disorders Embryonic stem cells(ES)- greater potential for differentiation(pluripotent) ‣ Must be done in vitro • teratoma- bad • Cell replacement therapy- iPS(induced pluripotent stem cells) reprogram diff cell into stem cell Corrects certain disease conds in model orgs Teratomas still problem Direct cell reprogramming • Synthetic bio- create living cell in lab Make existing orgs into something diff Give them traits to make new things Used for:meds,industry,environment Species reassignment therapy- replaced genome of bac w genome from closely related species • Viruses-intraellular obligate parasites virion- virus particle outside host cell Viral stx: ‣ Surface proteins bind speciﬁc host surface proteins(det's speciﬁcity) ‣ only certain viruses can interact w certain cells Lytic infection- host makes copies of virus and host loses Integration/loysogenic infection ‣ creates provirus by integrating own DNA into host DNA Bacteriophage- kill bacteria ‣ speciﬁc to host so noAAD ‣ Adenovirus- used in genetic engineering of euks Viriods- small pathogen,makes RNA mol..No proteins Prions • Chemistry of carbon • Special valence e- arrangement(can make 4 covalent bonds ) Functional groups-bits that give biochem S their characteristics
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