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week 1 notes

by: Mary-elizabeth Notetaker

week 1 notes bio 329

Mary-elizabeth Notetaker
U of L

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week 1 notes
Intro to Immunology
Shira Rabin
Class Notes
immunology, Biology, bio390
25 ?




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This 1 page Class Notes was uploaded by Mary-elizabeth Notetaker on Sunday August 28, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to bio 329 at University of Louisville taught by Shira Rabin in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 11 views. For similar materials see Intro to Immunology in Biology at University of Louisville.


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Date Created: 08/28/16
Ch 2 • Views on history of life: ⿞Special creation ⿞Darwinian theory of descent w modification ‣ Microevolution- change through time • Vestigial stxs/genes ‣ Speciation • Species- interbreeding groups/pops ‣ Macro evolution-fossils • Transitional forms- same species w diff forms..Have traits typical of distinct organism groups even tho same species ‣ Common ancestry • Homology- get nested patterns of traits to predict when species/traits arose • Molecular homology- shared flaws provide further evidence ⿞Pseudogenes- broken genes and accumulate flaws ‣ Comparing to mother gene shows how old it is ‣ Life on earth is old CH 3 • relationship btwn pattern and process • Nat selection- process in which events act on individuals but affect pops ⿞only process that leads to adaptation ⿞Explains species divergence and life diversity ⿞Darwin's dangerous idea- explains apparent design of the living world w/out recourse to supernatural ⿞Darwin's postulates- claims about nature of pops of orgs..must have all 4 • tested w direct evidence • Identify logical consequence • Can test whether logical consequence is observed ‣ Phenotype variation (mutation) ‣ Heritable variation ‣ Differential survival ‣ Differential success is attributable to certain alleles/allele combos ⿞Darwinian fitness- relative measure of indivs ability to survive and reproduce • indivs do not change • Pop changes as result of cold arithmetic ‣ fitness of biological entity- avg over capitals rate of inc in numbers • components relate to prob of survival to reproductive age • Avg number offspring produced from females(eggs/seeds) or males(sexual selection) • Prob and avg so fitness is defined for indivs w particular genotype ⿞Nature of Nat selection ‣ acts on standing variation to inc fitness in current environment,may not help in diff place or in future ‣ Acts on existing traits but new ones can emerge • exaptation- trait that is used in novel way • Directional selection- rare/extreme phenotype favored,causing allele freq to shift over time in direction of that phenotype ⿞selects for one extreme,moves pop in one direction • Disruptive selection- individuals w extreme/rare values of traits have highest fitness ⿞increases variation ⿞Moves towards both extremes,most common is selected against • Stabilizing selection- purifying selection...Decrease in variation around mean w/out changing mean • Frequency dependent selection- fitness of genotype dependent upon freq ⿞ex) mimics ‣ when small amt of mimics has high fitness BC higher prob predators ate real thing and will avoid mimics


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