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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Sierra Notetaker on Sunday August 28, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Psy 201 at University of Mississippi taught by Bliss, Heather Nicole in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 65 views.
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Date Created: 08/28/16
Chapter 1: The Science of Psychology What is psychological science? [1.1] the study, through research of mind, brain and behavior. What are the scientific foundations of psychology? [1.2] What are the latest developments in psychology? [1.3] Mind, brain and behavior are intertwined with each other. Psychologists critically evaluate info to reach reasonable conclusions. Critical thinking: systematically questioning and evaluating info. Psychological Reasoning Examines how people typically think Ignoring evidence Failing to accurately judge source credibility Misunderstanding or not using statistics Seeing relationships that do not exist Using relative comparisons Accepting after-the fact explanations Taking mental shortcuts Failing to see our own inadequacies (self-serving bias) Kruger and Dunning—teach people accurate skills in judging their performance. People need help identifying your weaknesses before they can fix them. People have a very optimistic view of what they can do. 1.2 What are the scientific foundations of psychology? Psychology originated in philosophy Aristotle and Plato debated the source of human psychology. Culture: the beliefs, values, rules, and customs that exist within a group. Nature: we are born who we are gonna be when we grow up Nurture: born completely blank, not prone to be more of something. Found out as time progressed: they both influence each other and are inseparable. How your environment influences you and how you influence your environment. Leonardo: “mind and body are one thing” John Stewart Mill argued that psychology should be a science of observation and experimentation. Wundt: established the first psychology lab. Invented use of reaction time to measure brains and see what its doing. Introspection: an internal exam of what is going on. Asking people to tell us what they’re thinking and what they are thinking Titchener: learning and memory Structuralism: break down everything into underlying opponents. Used introspection to study consciousness. ** William James: physiologist, philosopher ** Mary Whiton Calkins—first women to set up a psychological lab and first woman president of the American Psychological Association Francis Sumner: first African American to earn a doctorate degree in psychology in the US. Also established the first psychological lab at a black university: Howard. Kenneth Clark—first black pres of APA Inez Beverly Prosser—first black female psychologist. Studied education, self- esteem and racial bias. Brown vs Board of Edu. Functionalism—a purpose? Stream of consciousness: phrase coined by William James o describe each person’s ever changing thoughts and feelings. Know what evolution is and how it works. Change of species over time. Adaptation: As randomly mutated genes are passed along from generation to generation, species over time. Survival of the fittest: survive and reproduce. Gestalt theory: a theory based on the idea that the whole experience is diff from the sum of its elements. Different than functionalism. Influenced the study of vision and human personality. Dotty pic of the dalmation. Small = the big pic Sigmund Frued: Much of human behavior is determined by mental processes operating below the level of awareness. Psychoanalysis: a method developed by Sigmund Frued that attempts to bring the contents of the unconscious into conscious awareness so that conflicts can be revealed. SYMBOLISM. John B Watson challenged psychology’s focus on conscious and unconscious mental processes. Developed behaviorism: emphasizes the role of environmental forces in producing observable behavior. BF Skinner –rats [physiological] Cognitive psychology: the study of mental functions such as intelligence, thinking, language, memory and decision making. Cognitive neuroscience: the study of the nueral mechanisms underlying thought, learning, perception, language and memory. [Computers led to info processing theories] Social vs personality psychology Carl Rodgers and Maslow pioneered a humanistic approach to the treatment of psycholocal disorders. Behaviorism gave rise to therapies designed to modify behavior. 1.3 What are the Latest Developments in Psychology? Three major advances that have helped further Brain Chemistry Nueroscience 1980’s MRI machine Some brains are important for specific feelings, thoughts and actions. Brain regions work together to produce behavior and mental activity. The human genome Scientists have made enormous progress in understanding the human genome: the basic genetic code, or blueprint, for the human body. Genes affect thoughts, actions, feelings, and disorders. Schizophrenia—mid 20’s early 30’s Culture Provides Adaptive Solutions Culture affects thought and behavior Cultural rules are learned as norms: racial bias. Behavior at many levels of analysis at four important levels Biological Individual Social Cultural Example: Listening to music can be studied at all levels STUDY THE CHART…OR LOOK THROUGH IT UNTIL YOU UNDERSTAND IT Industrial and organizational—psychologists who analyze stores and what not
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