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week 1

by: Mary-elizabeth Notetaker

week 1 Bio 390

Mary-elizabeth Notetaker
U of L

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week 1 notes
Intro to Immunology
Shira Rabin
Class Notes
Biology, immunology, introtoimmunology, bio390
25 ?




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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Mary-elizabeth Notetaker on Sunday August 28, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Bio 390 at University of Louisville taught by Shira Rabin in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 5 views. For similar materials see Intro to Immunology in Biology at University of Louisville.


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Date Created: 08/28/16
Ch 1 • 420BC...Thucydides..Plague victims surviving nursed sick BC couldn't get sick anymore • Vaccinations-induce immunity ‣ Smallpox & cows • Mary Montague- actually gave ppl smallpox..some would get milder cases • Edward Jenner- Milkmaids never got it BC had mild form of cowpox which caused immunity to smallpox ‣ Cholera & chickens • Pasteur- ones exposed to old cholera then new lived,so saw one exposure may prevent future disease ⿞Herd immunity- if many immune(from vaccines maybe),most won't contract disease ‣ When decreases disease will spread ⿞Ellie metchnikoff- looked at phagocytic cells(formed elements...."eating" cells) ‣ saw more active in immunized animals(cellular component) ⿞ Behring & kitasato- saw non cell components were critical (serum) ‣ Transferred resistance to diphtheria ⿞Kabat- antibody transfers resistance ⿞...immune system has cellular,noncellular,organ,and outside components..all the above combined • immune system ⿞Innate immunity-immediate attack • Not specific • Always same response to repeat infection • Major components:barriers(skin) • Pattern recognition mols • How are foreign subs recognized: ⿞markers encoded in germ line,all cells the same in body ‣ Phagocytic cells ...Find and get rid of foreigns • Ex) Macrophage,neutrophil ⿞Specific immunity(adaptive)- delayed ‣ After 5-8 days will go after specific foreigns not gotten by innate to finish job • Can adapt to improve during course of response ‣ More rapid and effective way each exposure ‣ Major components:t & B cells(lymphocytes),antibodies,antigen specific receptors ‣ How are foreign subs recognized • randomly generated(b & t receptors)...All cells diff ⿞Bind to specific antigens ‣ Ex) Humoral immunity- antibodies (b cells) & Cell mediated immunity-T cells • humoral vs cell mediated ⿞Immune responses tailored to organism involved ‣ Intracellular- to get viruses ‣ Extracellular- to get bacteria,worm,fungi • Innate and adaptive immunity cooperate ⿞Cytokines & chemokines (message) ⿞Inflammatory response- brings cells to injured area • Memory = immunity ⿞Does not exist in innate immune system • Tolerance- prevent destruction of host tissue ⿞Self preservation ‣ Consequence:preservation of cancerous cells ⿞If Dysfunctional tolerance --> autoimmunity(attack own body) • Immunity dysfunctions: ⿞Overly active/misdirected response- works as it should but goes too far ‣ Allergy,asthma,anaphylaxis ‣ Autoimmune disease ⿞Immunodeficiency ‣ Primary- genetic loss of immune function (born with) ‣ Secondary- acquired loss of immune function (later in life something happens) • Opportunistic infections- caused by microbes that shouldn't usually cause disease ⿞Ex)AIDS- loseT cells ⿞Transplanted tissues- wants to avoid immune response (rejection)..normal response needs to be suppressed ⿞Cancer- our cells are dangerous Ch 2 Cells of the immune system • White blood cells- come primarily from bone marrow in upper leg • Organs ⿞primary lymphoid organs (bone marrow,thymus[wbc mature]) ⿞Secondary lymphoid organs (spleen[looks in blood and filters worn out rbc,microbes],lymph nodes) ‣ communication happens in middle of body • Blood vessels ⿞transfer occurs btwn blood vessels and lymphatic system • Lymphatic system Cell types: • Wbc- also called leukocytes ⿞neutrophils- predominat wbc...go thru body and make sure foreign things in check- innate system (iis) ⿞Lymphocytes- b &T cells- specific immune system(sis) • Hematopoietic stem cells(HSCs)- don't wear out and die...regenerate into all diff types of blood cells ⿞two diff progenitors- diff'd by ability to regenerate and differentiate ‣ myeloid: • rbc- carry oxygen • Platelets- allow clotting • Granulocytes- have vesicles in cytoplasm w bad chems to release when they find foreign cell needing killed ⿞neutrophils- phagocytic,releases granules ⿞Basophils/mast cells- help w extracellular infections,worm infections ‣ mast cells release granules with histamine when allergies occur ⿞Eosinophils- " "" " " " " • monocytes/macrophages(membrane ruffling from actin fibers extending/retracting) ⿞find and engulf foreign particles ⿞repair/remodel or destroy pathogens(get rid of dead/dying cells) ⿞Antigen presentation(ACPs)- if cells react then that cell type starts working ⿞Exs) osteoclasts(destroy bone),microglial cells,alveolar macrophages(work at lower rate to prevent pneumonia) ‣ lymphoid- • NK cells(natural killer)- act like iis..Find cancer cells • B lymphocytes- humoral immunity (CD- marker) ⿞Activated B cell- has bound to specific antigen,then will differentiate into either: ‣ plasma cell- antibody(kind of protein) generating machine with lots more cytoplasm(BC need RNA,Golgi,ER which are all found in cytoplasm) ⿞memory b cells- from first exposure to disease(like chicken pox) so not contracted again ⿞B cell receptor(BCR)- all B cells get BCR as maturing ‣ many diff options,get one randomly (billions of combos) • descendants get same BCR • T lymphocytes- cell mediated immunity (CD3+ markers) ⿞T helper cell(CD4+)- directors ⿞Cytotoxic cell (CD8+)- kill cells..Have vesicles w bad chems.Kill infected cells and pathogens ⿞Memory dep on cell type ⿞T cell receptor(TCR)- allT cells getTCR as maturing ‣ many diff options,get one randomly (billions of combos) ‣ Pos/neg selection • if bind too strongly to self marker,cell dies so it won't attack own body • Bone marrow • B &T cells start in marrow ⿞b lymphocytes completely develop here ⿞Endosteal niche- quiescent HSCs ⿞Vascular niche- HSCs ready to differentiate-T cells escape thru here to thymus ‣ t cells have noTCR or CD marker yet ‣ Cortex- DP(double positive cell has CD4+ and CD8+) and formTCR(CD3+ marker added) and go through positive selection(should react a little bit to self marker) ‣ Medulla- SP(single pos...Loses one(either 4 or 8) marker) and goes through negative selection(cells come to make sure it doesn't react too strongly to self marker) ‣ MatureT cells ready for release • How do lymphocytes get activated? ⿞ReceptorTCR & BCR ⿞Specific to particular antigen ⿞secondary lymphoid organs- communication center and where lymphocytes are activated ‣ lymph nodes,spleen,tonsils/peyer's patches ‣ Connected via blood and lymphatic systems • let out in blood system,move around in tissues,go into lymph system and surrounding skeletal muscles move them to middle of body to show b andT cells(secondary lymph tissues) any antigens Etc found in body ‣ Encounter antigen,initiate immune response • Lymph node HEVs(high endothelial venules) ⿞where t and B cells enter lymph node ‣ FRCs guide migration of macrophages andT cells to make sure they encounter all of each other ‣ FDCs guide B cells same way ⿞TakesT cell ~1 day to sell all presented antigens onAPCs ⿞


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