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Microbiology, Week 1 Notes

by: Amanda Biddlecome

Microbiology, Week 1 Notes 81382 - MICR 3050 - 001

Amanda Biddlecome
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About this Document

These notes cover Week 1 of Microbiology.
General Microbiology
Dr. Rudolph
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This 8 page Class Notes was uploaded by Amanda Biddlecome on Sunday August 28, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 81382 - MICR 3050 - 001 at Clemson University taught by Dr. Rudolph in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 10 views. For similar materials see General Microbiology in Biology at Clemson University.


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Date Created: 08/28/16
Microbiology  3050   Amanda  Biddlecome   August  17,  2016   Chapter  1:  The  Evolution  of  Microorganisms  and  Microbiology     1)  What  are  microorganisms?     -­‐IN  GENERAL,  they’re  organisms  and  acellular  entities  too  small  to  be  seen  by     the  naked  eye       *generally  less  than  or  equal  to  1mm  in  diameter       *some  you  can  see  with  the  naked  eye       *some  things  are  microscopic,  but  aren’t  microorganisms  because         they’re  animals     -­‐often  unicellular       *don’t  have  to  be  part  of  a  multicellular  structure  to  survive       *some  prefer  to  live  in  cell  clusters     2)  Things  Microbiologists  Study     -­‐Fungi,  Protists,  Bacteria,  Archaea       *if  you  don’t  have  highly  differentiated  tissue,  it’s  probably  microbial       *some  people  say  that  mushrooms  are  microbes       *they’re  simple  in  form     -­‐Acellular       *viruses,  viroids,  satellites,  prions         ^Hepatitis  D.  is  a  satellite,  not  a  virus     3)  Importance  of  Microorganisms     -­‐they’re  in  everything     -­‐1/3  of  Nobel  prizes  have  gone  to  people  studying  microorganisms     -­‐microorganisms  are  the  most  populous  and  diverse  group  of  organisms       *estimate=5X10  bacteria  on  Earth  30   -­‐found  virtually  everywhere  on  the  planet       *mostly  underground!       *in  environments  that  nothing  else  could  survive  in     -­‐play  a  major  role  in  recycling  essential  elements  like  nitrogen,  carbon,  and     sulfur       *nitrogen  fixation     -­‐major  biomass  of  earth       *source  of  nutrients         ^50%  of  carbon  and  90%  of  nitrogen  on  earth     -­‐some  do  photosynthesis       *75%  of  oxygen  came  from  cyanobacteria  and  algae     -­‐most  are  beneficial,  but  some  can  be  detrimental  (fatal)     -­‐they  influence  all  other  living  things     -­‐excellent  tools  for  study,  especially  when  you  can  grow  them  in  labs     4)  Types  of  Microbial  Cells     -­‐Prokaryotic=bacteria  and  archeon       *karion-­‐means  nut       *cells  without  a  membrane  bound  nucleus  or  membrane  bound         organelles       *simple       *not  absolute,  and  there’s  always  exceptions  to  these  rules       *prokaryotes  can  be  very  different  from  one  another  so  grouping  is         questionable     -­‐Eukaryotic       *membrane  bound  organelles  and  nucleus       *complex       *larger     5)  Acellular  Infectious  Agents     -­‐viruses       *have  DNA  or  RNA       *neither  prokaryotic  nor  eukaryotic  because  they’re  not  cells       *have  to  have  a  host  cell  (parasitic)       *causes  diseases     -­‐viroids  and  satellites       *viroids  cause  plant  diseases       *satellites  cause  animal  diseases     -­‐prions       *spongiform  encephalopathy       *mad  cow  disease       *have  seen  genetic  issues  caused  by  this     6)  Classification     -­‐to  classify  better  than  just  by  visuals,  look  at  the  DNA  in  ribosomes  in  all     types  of  cells         *DNA  that  codes  for  rRNA       *use  rRNA  DNA  because  it’s  in  all  cell  types     -­‐3  domain  system       *know  it’s  a  domain  because  its  capital  and  italicized       -­‐constantly  changing  but  the  basics  are  always  the  same     -­‐archeons  are  more  closely  related  to  eukaryotes  based  on  DNA  sequencing       *surprising  because  they  look  like  bacteria     -­‐chloroplasts  and  mitochondria  are  on  the  bacteria  domain  because  they     have  DNA       *endosymbiosis  hypothesis=they  were  separate  cells  that  were         engulfed  by  larger  cells       7)  Domain  Bacteria     -­‐prokaryotic     -­‐usually  1  cell     -­‐have  peptidoglycan  which  is  a  unique  polymer  found  only  in  bacteria       *sugar  and  amino  acid  that  makes  the  cell  wall     -­‐can  be  everywhere       *metabolic  diversity     8)  Domain  Archaea     -­‐prokaryotes       -­‐different  because  of  unique  rRNA  sequences,  not  because  of  looks     -­‐have  unique  membrane  lipids  to  make  them  more  similar  to  eukaryotes     -­‐some  have  unusual  metabolic  characteristics     -­‐many  live  in  extreme  environments       *because  they  have  lipid  mono-­‐layers  for  cell  membranes  that  don’t         fall  apart  in  heat     -­‐no  evidence  that  they  cause  disease     9)  Domain  Eukarya     -­‐eukaryotes     -­‐protists=taxon  of  mix-­‐matched  things       *all  very  different       *no  highly  differentiated  tissues     -­‐fungi       *no  highly  differentiated  tissues       *mushrooms?  are  they  microbes?     10)  How  did  microbes  evolve     -­‐mutation  of  genes       *stable  change       *mutagen,  random,  replication  complications       *could  get  advantageous  phenotype  to  survive,  so  natural  selection         happens     -­‐Bacteria  and  Archaea       *are  haploid:  only  1  set  of  genes       *mutation  is  immediately  visible       *change  happens  quicker  because  they  don’t  have  recessive  genes       *increase  genetic  diversity  by  horizontal  gene  transfer:  pass  genes  to         each  other  within  the  same  generation,  and  even  between  species         ^3  types  of  horizontal  gene  transfer:  conjugation  (cell  to  cell           contact  through  sex  pylus  with  donor  and  recipient  cells),           transduction  (viruses  are  the  vector,  but  it’s  a  mistake  by  the           virus),  and  transformation  (taking  naked  DNA  out  of  the           environment)       *increase  genetic  diversity  quickly     11)  Microbial  Species     -­‐don’t  sexually  reproduce       *so  definition  of  species  is  different     -­‐collection  of  strains  that  share  stable  properties  and  differ  from  other     groups  of  strains=microbial  species       *properties:  DNA  sequence,  GC  content,  not  plasmids       *strain=subset  of  microbial  species         ^descendants  of  a  single,  pure  microbial  culture         ^1  strain  becomes  the  type  strain,  which  is  the  standard,  but           sometimes  it  isn’t  the  best  representation  of  the  species     12)  Naming  Microbes     -­‐use  domains,  genus,  species     -­‐gives  a  lot  of  information     -­‐italicized       -­‐genus  is  capitalized  and  species  is  lowercased     -­‐first  time  you  mention  it,  write  out  the  full  name,  but  after  that  you  can     abbreviate  the  first  word  (genus)     -­‐E.  Coli       *named  after  discoverer  who  found  it  while  looking  at  the  feces  of         infants     -­‐Bacillus  subtilis       *slender  rod     -­‐micrococcus  luteus       *small  spheres       *golden  (bright  yellow)     -­‐streptococcus  lactis       *chain  of  spheres       *found  in  milk     -­‐staphylococcus  aureus       *staphyl=bunch  of  grapes       *spheres       *golden  pigment  but  creamy     -­‐treponema  pallidum       *trepo=turn       *nema=thread       *pallidum=pale     -­‐saccharomyces  cerevisiae       *yeast  used  to  make  beer       *myces  means  that  it  has  characteristics  of  fungus     13)  Discovery  of  microorganisms     -­‐Jansen-­‐created  first  real  microscope  and  it  compounded  30  times     -­‐Hooke  (1665)       *looked  at  mold  on  shoe  leather  and  saw  fruiting  structures       *gets  credit  for  discovering  microorganisms  because  he  published  it       *also  discovered  cells     -­‐Leeuwenhoek  (1674-­‐1676)       *sometimes  credited  with  microscope  discovery         *liked  to  make  magnifying  glasses       *looked  at  rainwater  with  pepper  in  it       *discovered  bacteria  and  drew  them  and  published  it       *discovered  sperm     14)  Conflict  of  Spontaneous  Generation     -­‐spontaneous  generation  means  that  organisms  can  appear  out  of     nothing/nonliving  matter     -­‐Redi  (1668)       *disproved  spontaneous  generation  of  large  organisms  through  his         meat/fly  experiment     15)  Spontaneous  Generation  Disproved     -­‐Louis  Pasteur       *boiled  broth  in  a  flask  with  a  curved  neck  to  allow  air  to  get  in       *dust  got  stuck  in  the  neck  of  the  flask       *flask  remains  pure  to  this  day,  and  he  disproved  spontaneous           generation  in  microorganisms     16)  Final  Blows  to  Spontaneous  Generation     -­‐Tyndall  (1820-­‐1893)       *made  optically  pure  air       *made  a  box  with  glycerine  on  the  inside  so  dust  went  in  and  got  stuck       *put  sterile  glass  in  it  and  it  stayed  sterile       *said  dust  carried  microorganisms       *proposed  idea  of  heat-­‐resistant  bacteria     -­‐Cohn       *discovered  endospores  (that’s  where  Pasteur  got  lucky)         ^very  heat  resistant       *thought  all  microorganisms  were  plants       *first  to  use  the  term  bacillus       *classified  microorganisms  by  shape     17)  The  Role  of  Microorganisms  in  Disease     -­‐believed  witches  cursed  people  and  they  got  sick     -­‐had  to  have  right  techniques  to  connect  germs  to  causing  diseases       *germ  theory  of  disease     -­‐immunology     18)  Indirect  Evidence  for  germ  theory  of  disease     -­‐Lister       *started  connecting  microorganisms  to  infection  after  surgery       *Father  of  Modern  Surgery       *heat  sterilize  instruments,  poured  carboxylic  acid  sterilizer  on         wounds,  made  surgeons  wash  hands  and  wear  gloves       *fewer  infections     -­‐Semmelweis         *childbed  fever=infection  after  giving  birth       *realized  doctors  and  medical  students  would  come  directly  from         studying  cadavers  to  deliver  babies         ^made  them  wash  hands  in  chlorine         ^didn’t  get  much  credit  because  he  was  a  jerk  and  they  didn’t           want  to  admit  doctors  were  causing  disease     19)  Direct  Evidence  for  germ  theory  of  disease     -­‐Koch=Father  of  Germ  Theory  of  Disease       *looked  at  anthrax  and  found  out  about  endospores         ^skin  contact=20%  mortality;  ingestion=60%  mortality;           breathed  in=100%  mortality       *injected  anthrax  into  mice  and  then  their  blood  into  other  mice  and         into  the  next  and  etc.         *Koch’s  Postulates         ^still  used  today         ^establishes  a  link  between  microorganisms  and  causing  a           disease     20)  Koch’s  Postulates     -­‐got  Nobel  Prize  for  discovering  tuberculosis  and  the  microorganism     connected  to  it       *used  guinea  pigs     -­‐1)  find  pathogen  in  ALL  cases  of  disease  and  in  NO  healthy  subjects       *have  to  visualize  bacteria  in  blood       *still  could  just  be  a  symptom     -­‐2)  isolate  the  microorganism  in  a  pure  culture       *use  aseptic  technique       *streak  agar  plate       *spread  out  sample  into  quadrant  and  heat  the  loop  between           quadrants       *have  a  colony  and  know  it’s  pure  culture     -­‐3)  take  pure  culture  and  put  it  into  a  healthy  individual  and  it  should  get  sick     in  the  same  way     -­‐4)  see  pathogen  in  blood  and  isolate  it  and  should  look  like  the  other  one     -­‐limits       *techniques       *if  the  only  hosts  are  humans,  then  you  have  an  ethical  dilemma     21)  Supplies/Techniques  used  by  Koch     -­‐agar       *jello-­‐like  substance  that  solidifies  in  a  Petri  dish       *gelatin  isn’t  good  because  it  doesn’t  stay  solid  at  body  temperature         (optimal  temperature  for  growth)       *got  the  idea  from  a  friend’s  wife       *polysaccharide  from  seaweed  that  stays  solid  at  37  degrees  Ce1lcius         and  bacteria  don’t  eat  it  and  it  can  be  sterilized  and  still  stay  together     -­‐nutrients       *because  organisms  need  to  eat       *have  different  nutrient  needs  for  different  organisms     22)  Developments  in  Immunology     -­‐Jenner       *vaccination  for  small  pox       *300  million  people  worldwide  in  the  20th  century  died  of  this       *did  this  before  the  germ  theory  of  disease       *from  cowpox     -­‐Pasteur  and  Roux       *incubation  of  cultures  for  long  intervals  causes  organisms  to  weaken         and  cause  immunity,  not  disease         ^attenuation=weakened:  age,  chemicals       *can  still  stimulate       *chicken  cholera,  rabies,  and  anthrax  vaccines     23)  Developments  in  Industrial  Microbiology     -­‐Pasteur       *proved  fermentation  was  done  by  microorganisms           ^bacteria  can  spoil  wine       *developed  pasteurization         ^first  done  for  wine  and  adapted  for  milk  by  Germans         ^heat  substance  to  a  temperature  to  kill  spoilage  microbes  but           not  destroy  food:  disinfects,  not  sanitizes     -­‐Fleming       *discovered  penicillin       *accidental  discovery       *threw  away  a  culture  of  staff  and  later  found  fuzzy  growth  that         inhibited  growth  of  microbes     24)  Developments  in  Microbial  Ecology     -­‐Winogradsky  and  Beijerinck       *both  worked  in  the  same  area       *used  enrichment  culture  to  grow  many  things         ^made  them  like  the  environment  microorganisms  thrive  in       *selective  cultures  killed  things  you  didn’t  want       *studied  soil  microbes  and  discovered  Nitrogen  Fixation     -­‐Winogradsky:  chemolithotrophy       *you  can  use  inorganics  for  an  energy  source  and  make  organics  from         carbon  dioxide     -­‐Beijerinck=Father  of  Virology       *started  studying  viruses            


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