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Week 1 - Functional Anatomy and Pathophysiology I: Lecture Notes

by: Audrey Hernandez

Week 1 - Functional Anatomy and Pathophysiology I: Lecture Notes PHCL 2600

Marketplace > University of Toledo > Biology > PHCL 2600 > Week 1 Functional Anatomy and Pathophysiology I Lecture Notes
Audrey Hernandez
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About this Document

Notes cover the basics of cell anatomy and functionality as talked about during week 1 of lectures.
Human Anatomy and Pathophysiology
Dr. Frederick Williams
Class Notes
Biology, anatomy




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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Audrey Hernandez on Sunday August 28, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PHCL 2600 at University of Toledo taught by Dr. Frederick Williams in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 83 views. For similar materials see Human Anatomy and Pathophysiology in Biology at University of Toledo.


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Date Created: 08/28/16
Functional Anatomy and Pathophysiology I  Dr. Frederick E. Williams Week 1 Lecture Notes    Cell Physiology    ❖ Cells are capable of…  ➢ Reproduction  ➢ Adapting to the environment  ➢ Metabolic activity  ❖ Cells multiply and differentiate  ➢ Specialized cells form the different tissues of the body  ➢ Different tissues come together to form organs  ➢ Different organs come together to for systems  ➢ Different systems come together to form an organism  ❖ Cells/tissue types include…  ➢ Connective  ■ Specialized for support of the body  ■ Can be packed loosely or densely  ● Densely packed can either be packed regularly or irregularly   ■ Examples are…  ● Blood ­ transport nutrients and wastes to/from cells  ● Cartilage/Ligaments/Bone ­ support body from becoming a  formless blob  ● Fat ­ insulation as well as storage system  ➢ Epithelial  ■ Tightly packed in sheets  ■ Protects for exposed surfaces  ● Including the inside of the body from the oral cavity to the renal  cavity  ■ Different types…  ● Squamous  ◆ Found on skin  ◆ Very good at protection, not so much for absorbing  ● Cuboidal  ◆ Slight capability to secrete and absorb  ● Columnar  ◆ Found in digestive tract  ◆ Excellent at absoration  ● Pseudostratified columnar  ◆ Found in upper respiratory tract area  Functional Anatomy and Pathophysiology I  Dr. Frederick E. Williams Week 1 Lecture Notes    ◆ Can have cilia although some do not  ➢ Muscle  ■ Made with myofibrils  ● Myofibrils the cells that make it possible for mechanical  movement as they are contractile cells  ■ Examples are…  ● Skeletal ­ muscles attached to the skeletal system  ● Cardiac muscles ­ heart muscles  ● Smooth muscles ­ blood vessels and gut/other organs  ➢ Nerve  ■ CNS  ● Central Nervous System  ● Comprised of the brain and spinal cord  ■ PNS  ● Peripheral Nervous System  ● Everything outside of the CNS  ■ Examples are…  ● Neurons ­ send/receive neural impulses  ● Glia ­ support for neurons as well as feed/filter nutrients for  neurons  ❖ Basic macromolecules  ➢ Proteins  ■ Comprised of amino acids  ■ Different structure levels  ● Primary ­ the amino acid sequence  ● Secondary ­ how amino acids interact within the protein  ● Tertiary ­ complete and functional protein  ● Quaternary ­ combination of two or more tertiary interacting with  each other  ➢ Lipids  ■ Not miscible with water  ■ Types…  ● Fatty acids  ● Glycolipids ­ lipids with a sugar molecule attached  ● Phospholipids ­ made from fatty acids and make cell membranes  ● Steroids ­ like hormones or cholesterol     Functional Anatomy and Pathophysiology I  Dr. Frederick E. Williams Week 1 Lecture Notes    ➢ Nucleic acids  ■ Types…  ● DNA  ● RNA  ➢ Carbohydrates  ■ Sugars used for energy storage  ■ Types…  ● Monosaccharides ­ glucose  ● Polysaccharides ­ glycogen    Cell Parts    ❖ Nucleus  ➢ Where DNA/RNA are made/replicated  ■ Chromosomes  ■ Chromatin  ● Two types…  ◆ Euchromatin ­ thin and extended, and often where RNA is  made  ◆ Heterochromatin ­ more condensed, and DNA not actively  making DNA, more resembles a chromosome  ➢ Has nuclear membrane comprised of two layers called envelope  ■ Space between layers called the perinuclear space  ■ Continuous with membrane of the endoplasmic reticulum   ➢ Has nuclear pores  ■ Constructed with proteins that can change shape to allow large molecules  to pass through  ➢ Nucleolus  ■ Has no membrane  ■ Can be one or more per nucleus  ■ Proteins created in the cytoplasm  ■ Nucleoplasm            Functional Anatomy and Pathophysiology I  Dr. Frederick E. Williams Week 1 Lecture Notes    ❖ Cytoplasm  ➢ Everything outside of the nucleus   ➢ Intracellular fluid  ➢ Organelles  ■ Endoplasmic reticulum (ER)  ● Flattened sacs with small intercellular space that is continuous with  nuclear envelope (perinuclear space)  ● Types…  ◆ Smooth ER  ➢ No ribosomes  ➢ Connects to rough ER  ➢ Creates lipids and metabolises foreign substances   ◆ Rough ER  ➢ Has ribosomes attached to side exposed to the  cytoplasm of cell  ➢ Ribosomes create proteins/lipoproteins/lipids for  hormones, lysosomes, and cell membrane  ➢ Creates glycoproteins in the lumen  ■ Ribosomes  ● Either are free in cytoplasm or attach to the ER to make rough ER  ● Sites of protein synthesis   ■ Golgi Apparatus  ● Collection of flat sacs, called cysternae, and vesicles   ● Faces  ◆ Cis ­ close to rough ER, entrance side for vesicles  ◆ Trans ­ close to plasma membrane, the exit side for vesicles  ● Packages and transports proteins in vesicles   ◆ Molecules and direction  ➢ Vesicles will sometimes have specific snare  proteins (v­snare) that home in on snare proteins on  target (t­snare)  ➢ Different snare proteins direct vesicles to proper  destination  ● Packages and makes lysosomes        Functional Anatomy and Pathophysiology I  Dr. Frederick E. Williams Week 1 Lecture Notes    ■ Lysosomes  ● Are membrane bound  ● Contain digestive enzymes for about everything  ◆ Enzymes active at pH = 5  ◆ Proton pumps hydrogen ions into cell to acidify  environment  ◆ Leakage is buffered by pH of cytoplasm  ● Peroxisomes  ◆ Oxidation reaction for detox­​ication­  ◆ Can break down H​ O​ 2​2​ ,2​nd OH​ ◆ Will produce water and oxygen ­ harmless to the cell  ■ Mitochondria  ● The cells energy maker and “power house”  ● Has folds called cristae  ◆ Higher number of cristae means higher metabolic activity  ● Matrix is inside fluid  ● Intermembrane space is space between membranes  ● Contains DNA, RNA, other proteins in matrix  ● Mitochondrial DNA is maternally inherited  ● Membranes  ◆ Outer ­ metabolizes lipids  ◆ Inner ­ electron transport/ Krebs cycle  ◆ Matrix ­ water soluble enzymes kept here, place of fatty  acid oxidation  ❖ Cell membrane   


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