Week 1 - Functional Anatomy and Pathophysiology I: Lecture Notes
Week 1 - Functional Anatomy and Pathophysiology I: Lecture Notes PHCL 2600
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Audrey Hernandez on Sunday August 28, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PHCL 2600 at University of Toledo taught by Dr. Frederick Williams in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 83 views. For similar materials see Human Anatomy and Pathophysiology in Biology at University of Toledo.
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Date Created: 08/28/16
Functional Anatomy and Pathophysiology I Dr. Frederick E. Williams Week 1 Lecture Notes Cell Physiology ❖ Cells are capable of… ➢ Reproduction ➢ Adapting to the environment ➢ Metabolic activity ❖ Cells multiply and differentiate ➢ Specialized cells form the different tissues of the body ➢ Different tissues come together to form organs ➢ Different organs come together to for systems ➢ Different systems come together to form an organism ❖ Cells/tissue types include… ➢ Connective ■ Specialized for support of the body ■ Can be packed loosely or densely ● Densely packed can either be packed regularly or irregularly ■ Examples are… ● Blood transport nutrients and wastes to/from cells ● Cartilage/Ligaments/Bone support body from becoming a formless blob ● Fat insulation as well as storage system ➢ Epithelial ■ Tightly packed in sheets ■ Protects for exposed surfaces ● Including the inside of the body from the oral cavity to the renal cavity ■ Different types… ● Squamous ◆ Found on skin ◆ Very good at protection, not so much for absorbing ● Cuboidal ◆ Slight capability to secrete and absorb ● Columnar ◆ Found in digestive tract ◆ Excellent at absoration ● Pseudostratified columnar ◆ Found in upper respiratory tract area Functional Anatomy and Pathophysiology I Dr. Frederick E. Williams Week 1 Lecture Notes ◆ Can have cilia although some do not ➢ Muscle ■ Made with myofibrils ● Myofibrils the cells that make it possible for mechanical movement as they are contractile cells ■ Examples are… ● Skeletal muscles attached to the skeletal system ● Cardiac muscles heart muscles ● Smooth muscles blood vessels and gut/other organs ➢ Nerve ■ CNS ● Central Nervous System ● Comprised of the brain and spinal cord ■ PNS ● Peripheral Nervous System ● Everything outside of the CNS ■ Examples are… ● Neurons send/receive neural impulses ● Glia support for neurons as well as feed/filter nutrients for neurons ❖ Basic macromolecules ➢ Proteins ■ Comprised of amino acids ■ Different structure levels ● Primary the amino acid sequence ● Secondary how amino acids interact within the protein ● Tertiary complete and functional protein ● Quaternary combination of two or more tertiary interacting with each other ➢ Lipids ■ Not miscible with water ■ Types… ● Fatty acids ● Glycolipids lipids with a sugar molecule attached ● Phospholipids made from fatty acids and make cell membranes ● Steroids like hormones or cholesterol Functional Anatomy and Pathophysiology I Dr. Frederick E. Williams Week 1 Lecture Notes ➢ Nucleic acids ■ Types… ● DNA ● RNA ➢ Carbohydrates ■ Sugars used for energy storage ■ Types… ● Monosaccharides glucose ● Polysaccharides glycogen Cell Parts ❖ Nucleus ➢ Where DNA/RNA are made/replicated ■ Chromosomes ■ Chromatin ● Two types… ◆ Euchromatin thin and extended, and often where RNA is made ◆ Heterochromatin more condensed, and DNA not actively making DNA, more resembles a chromosome ➢ Has nuclear membrane comprised of two layers called envelope ■ Space between layers called the perinuclear space ■ Continuous with membrane of the endoplasmic reticulum ➢ Has nuclear pores ■ Constructed with proteins that can change shape to allow large molecules to pass through ➢ Nucleolus ■ Has no membrane ■ Can be one or more per nucleus ■ Proteins created in the cytoplasm ■ Nucleoplasm Functional Anatomy and Pathophysiology I Dr. Frederick E. Williams Week 1 Lecture Notes ❖ Cytoplasm ➢ Everything outside of the nucleus ➢ Intracellular fluid ➢ Organelles ■ Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) ● Flattened sacs with small intercellular space that is continuous with nuclear envelope (perinuclear space) ● Types… ◆ Smooth ER ➢ No ribosomes ➢ Connects to rough ER ➢ Creates lipids and metabolises foreign substances ◆ Rough ER ➢ Has ribosomes attached to side exposed to the cytoplasm of cell ➢ Ribosomes create proteins/lipoproteins/lipids for hormones, lysosomes, and cell membrane ➢ Creates glycoproteins in the lumen ■ Ribosomes ● Either are free in cytoplasm or attach to the ER to make rough ER ● Sites of protein synthesis ■ Golgi Apparatus ● Collection of flat sacs, called cysternae, and vesicles ● Faces ◆ Cis close to rough ER, entrance side for vesicles ◆ Trans close to plasma membrane, the exit side for vesicles ● Packages and transports proteins in vesicles ◆ Molecules and direction ➢ Vesicles will sometimes have specific snare proteins (vsnare) that home in on snare proteins on target (tsnare) ➢ Different snare proteins direct vesicles to proper destination ● Packages and makes lysosomes Functional Anatomy and Pathophysiology I Dr. Frederick E. Williams Week 1 Lecture Notes ■ Lysosomes ● Are membrane bound ● Contain digestive enzymes for about everything ◆ Enzymes active at pH = 5 ◆ Proton pumps hydrogen ions into cell to acidify environment ◆ Leakage is buffered by pH of cytoplasm ● Peroxisomes ◆ Oxidation reaction for detoxication ◆ Can break down H O 22 ,2nd OH ◆ Will produce water and oxygen harmless to the cell ■ Mitochondria ● The cells energy maker and “power house” ● Has folds called cristae ◆ Higher number of cristae means higher metabolic activity ● Matrix is inside fluid ● Intermembrane space is space between membranes ● Contains DNA, RNA, other proteins in matrix ● Mitochondrial DNA is maternally inherited ● Membranes ◆ Outer metabolizes lipids ◆ Inner electron transport/ Krebs cycle ◆ Matrix water soluble enzymes kept here, place of fatty acid oxidation ❖ Cell membrane
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